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Theoretical Perspectives on Leadership: Situational Leadership Theory Leader-Member Exchange Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Theoretical Perspectives on Leadership: Situational Leadership Theory Leader-Member Exchange Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theoretical Perspectives on Leadership: Situational Leadership Theory Leader-Member Exchange Theory

2 Outline Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) Leader Member Exchange Theory (LMX)Leader Member Exchange Theory (LMX) Perspective-Taking ExercisePerspective-Taking Exercise

3 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Follower readiness: ability and willingness Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision

4 Emphasizes the situational contingency of maturity, or “readiness,” of followers. Emphasizes the situational contingency of maturity, or “readiness,” of followers. Readiness is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. Readiness is the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. Situational Leadership Theory

5 Appropriate leadership style is contingent on the followers’ readinessAppropriate leadership style is contingent on the followers’ readiness –Readiness - extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task Based on two leadership dimensionsBased on two leadership dimensions –Task (or directive) behaviors –Relationship (or supportive) behaviors Situational Leadership Theory

6 Posits four stages follower readiness:Posits four stages follower readiness: –R1: Low readiness followers are unable and unwillingfollowers are unable and unwilling –R2: Low to moderate readiness followers are unable but willingfollowers are unable but willing –R3: Moderate to high readiness followers are able but unwillingfollowers are able but unwilling –R4: High readiness followers are able and willingfollowers are able and willing Situational Leadership Theory

7 The Four Leadership Styles Selling Telling Participating Delegating

8 Four specific leadership styles (incorporating directive & supportive leadership dimensions):Four specific leadership styles (incorporating directive & supportive leadership dimensions): –Telling: high task-low relationship leadership –Selling: high task-high relationship leadership –Participating: low task-high relationship leadership –Delegating: low task-low relationship leadership Situational Leadership Theory

9 Matching Leadership style with Development Level Leader style and follower readiness. Leader style and follower readiness. –A telling style is best for low readiness. –A selling style is best for low to moderate readiness. –A participating style is best for moderate to high readiness. –A delegating style is best for high readiness.

10 Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model

11 Selling S2 Explain decisions and provide opportunity for clarification Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory Participating S3 Share ideas and facilitate in decision making Follower-Directed Leader-Directed Low High Leader Behavior Task Behavior Follower Readiness High Moderate Low R4 R3 R2R1 Relationship Behavior (supportive behavior) Delegating S4 Turn over responsibility for decisions and implementation Telling S1 Provide specific instructions and closely supervise performance

12 The Leader-Member Exchange Approach Stresses the importance of variable relationships between leaders and each of their followers.Stresses the importance of variable relationships between leaders and each of their followers.

13 The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX Model) This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes.This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes. - in-group exchange: a partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect and liking- in-group exchange: a partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect and liking - out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect and liking- out-group exchange: a partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect and liking

14 The Leader-Member Exchange LMX Model Leader F1F1 Out-group viewed as incompetent, untrustworthy, and poorly motivated In-group viewed as competent, trustworthy, and highly motivated F2F2 F3F3 F4F4 F5F5

15 LMX Model Stages of Relationship DevelopmentStages of Relationship Development –Phase 1: Testing and assessment –Phase 2: Development of trust –Phase 3: Creation of emotional bond

16 Factors Influencing the Relationship Member attributes influence relationshipMember attributes influence relationship extroversionextroversion abilitiesabilities ingratiation behaviorsingratiation behaviors Affective responses influence the relationshipAffective responses influence the relationship –perceived similarity attractionattraction –leads to increased interaction trusttrust

17 Outcomes of LMX High ‑ LMX relationship groups tends to outperform low ‑ LMX relationship groupsHigh ‑ LMX relationship groups tends to outperform low ‑ LMX relationship groups Outcomes:Outcomes: –Productivity –Job satisfaction –Organizational commitment –Employee resignation –Salary and promotion

18 Gender and LMX Gender differences influence interactionsGender differences influence interactions Mixed gender relationshipsMixed gender relationships –supervisors rate performance lower –supervisors report liking subordinate less –subordinates experience greater role ambiguity

19 Perspective-Taking Ability to “read” leader or member important in LMXAbility to “read” leader or member important in LMX Use role-taking skills to entertain the point of view of anotherUse role-taking skills to entertain the point of view of another Associated withAssociated with – +patience – +reasonableness – +sensitivity – -aggressiveness – -sarcasm

20 Perspective-Taking Exercise Instructions. This task will be similar to a game of Pictionary. You have each been given a card with a word on it. First, one of you will draw in order to get your partner to say the word on your card. Then, your partner will draw for you. It makes no difference who goes first and who goes second. You are to draw anything you wish to draw in order to get your partner to say the word on your card.Instructions. This task will be similar to a game of Pictionary. You have each been given a card with a word on it. First, one of you will draw in order to get your partner to say the word on your card. Then, your partner will draw for you. It makes no difference who goes first and who goes second. You are to draw anything you wish to draw in order to get your partner to say the word on your card.

21 Exercise Rules 1) While drawing, you may not speak to your partner or use hand gestures to communicate with your partner. 2) You may not use numbers, letters, or the number sign (#) in your drawings. 3) You may not write any part of the word, even if your partner has said a part of the word. 4) Your partner must say the word EXACTLY as it appears on the card. 5) You will have 3 minutes in which to draw and for your partner to guess. Good Luck!!

22 Perspective-Taking Questions When you were drawing, did you draw toward yourself or toward your partner?When you were drawing, did you draw toward yourself or toward your partner? How do you think your score on the perspective- taking questionnaire might relate to your performance on this task?How do you think your score on the perspective- taking questionnaire might relate to your performance on this task? How do you think one’s tendency or ability to take the perspective (i.e., point of view) of another might influence the ways in which leaders and subordinates interact?How do you think one’s tendency or ability to take the perspective (i.e., point of view) of another might influence the ways in which leaders and subordinates interact?


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