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10/4/2003COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife1 Conflict Resolution in CLIPS COMP 474/674 FALL 2003 Michelle Khalifé

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 2 Outline Overview: Step-1 & Step-2 Conflict Resolution Strategies A Simple Example Recency-Based Strategies Depth Breadth Specificity-Based Simplicity Complexity Refraction-Based: Lex Mea Random Conclusion

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 3 Overview (1) Step-1: Order by Salience In which order are rules placed on the AGENDA? SORT by Salience: Newly activated rules are placed above all rules with lower salience and below all rules with higher salience. Assume the following rules are on the AGENDA: Rule-1 salience = 100; Rule-2 salience = 50; & a new rule is activated: Rule-3 salience = 75; Then the order will be as follows: Rule-1 salience =100; Rule-3 salience = 75; Rule-2 salience = 50;

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 4 Overview (2) Step-2: Order by Strategy What if two rules have equal salience? SORT by Strategy: The conflict resolution strategy is used to determine placement of a rule that has the same salience as another. Assume the previous Rule-1 and Rule-2 are on the AGENDA & the newly activated rule has the same salience as Rule-1: Rule-3 salience = 100 ; Will the order be? Rule-1 salience =100; Rule-3 salience = 100; Rule-2 salience = 50; Or? Rule-3 salience =100; Rule-1 salience = 100; Rule-2 salience = 50;

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 5 Conflict Resolution Strategies (1) Based on either one of the following: Refraction-based: A rule is not allowed to fire more than once on the same set of facts. Depth & Breadth Specificity-based: Rules with a greater number of conditions are harder to satisfy and are preferred because they take more facts into account. Simplicity and Complexity Recency-based: Every fact promoted to the Fact-Base gets a time stamp. This allows us to know which facts are more recent than others. Lex and MEA

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 6 Conflict Resolution Strategies (2) To change the conflict resolution strategy: (set-strategy depth) (set-strategy breadth) (set-strategy simplicity) (set-strategy complexity) (set-strategy lex) (set-strategy mea) (set-strategy random)

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 7 A Simple Example (defrule rule1 (declare (salience 1)) (f1) (f2) (f3) => (assert (action1)) ) (defrule rule2 (declare (salience 10)) (f2) => (assert (action2)) ) (defrule rule3 (declare (salience 5)) (f1) (f2) => (assert (action3)) ) (defrule rule4 (declare (salience 5)) (f1) (f2) (f3) => (assert (action4)) ) (deffacts the-facts (f1) (f2) ) (deffacts recent-facts (f3) )

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 8 Depth Depth is the default strategy. You only need it to specify it if you have been using another strategy and would like to revert back to it. How it works: Place the new rules above all rules of same salience: R1. R2, R1. R2, R3, R1. R2, R4, R3, R1.

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 9 Breadth How it works: Place the new rules below all rules of same salience: R1. R2, R1. R2, R3, R1. R2, R3, R4, R1.

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 10 Simplicity How it works: Within the same salience class, place newly activated rules above all rules with equal or higher specificity i.e. priority over rules with more premises to satisfy: R1 R2, R1 R2, R3, R1 R2, R3, R4, R1

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 11 Complexity How it works: Within the same salience class, place newly activated rules above all rules with equal or lower specificity i.e. priority over rules of same salience and less premises to satisfy: R1. R2, R1. R2, R3, R1. R2, R4, R3, R1.

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 12 Lex How it works: Within the same salience class, place newly activated rules above ones with a less recent fact-index i.e. rules that use more recent facts get priority. In case of a tie, the rule with the higher specificity is placed first: R1 R2, R1 R2, R3, R1 R2, R4, R3, R1.

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 13 MEA How it works: Within the same salience class, sort rules according to the recency of the data that matches the first pattern. In case of a tie, apply LEX. R1 R2, R1 R2, R3, R1 R2, R4, R3, R1

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 14 Random How it works: Each rule activated is assigned a random number. The latter determines the place of the rule among others of same salience. Try running the same program more than once with the random strategy. How does it behave?

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10/4/2003 COMP 474/674 Fall 2003 Michelle Khalife 15 Conclusion Newly activated rules are placed above all rules with lower salience and below all rules with higher salience. If two rules have equal salience, then the conflict resolution strategy is used to decide placement. If a tie still applies, then the order is either arbitrary or the rule that occurs first in the file gets priority.

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