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Brain Development and Evolution

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Presentation on theme: "Brain Development and Evolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Brain Development and Evolution
Developmental Biology III

2 Developmental Biology III
Genetic Factors Underlie Human Behaviors

3 Genes Neurons Networks Behaviors
Developmental Biology III Genes Neurons Networks Behaviors

4 Neuroscience The goal of neural science is to understand the mind – how we perceive, move, think, and remember. Eric Kandel Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

5 Behavior can be examined at the level of individual nerve cells by answering five basic questions.
How does the brain develop? How do nerve cells in the brain communicate with one another? How do different patterns of interconnections give rise to different perceptions and motor acts? How is communication between neurons modified by experience? How is that communication altered by diseases?

6 Developmental Biology III
Development of Vertebrate Neural Tube Neural plate Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Neural groove Paraxial mesoderm Neural tube Lateral plate Paraxial mesoderm Notochord Somite

7 Developmental Biology III
Early Development of the Vertebrate Central Nervous System

8 Hox Genes are Expressed in the Developing Neural Tube
Hox b2 Hox b4

9 Developmental Biology III
The HOM/Hox Gene Clusters

10 Developmental Biology III
Hoxb-1 Hoxb-2 Hoxb-3 Hoxb4 Kreisler Krox20 EphA4 EphA2 EphB2 EphB3 Ephrin B1 Ephrin B2 Ephrin B3 Hox genes Other transcription factors Eph kinases Ephrins r r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r r r r r6 Hindbrain is Segmented by Hox Genes Segmental Expression of Hindbrain Patterning Genes

11 Developmental Biology III
Trigeminal Nerve (V) Facial Nerve (VII) Grosso- pharyngeal Nerve (IX) Vegus, spinal accessory Nerve (X, XI) Somatic motor nuclei Visceral motor nuclei Oculomotor nerve (III) Trochlear Nerve (iV) AbducensNerve (VI) Hypoglossal Nerve (VII) r1 r2 r3 r4 r5 r6 r7 r8 Midbrain Hindbrain Segmental Development of the Hindbrain Motor Neurons

12 Developmental Biology III
Mutation of Hoxb-1 Causes Homeotic Transformation of the Hindbrain Motor Neurons r2 v.s. r4 neurons Wild type Hoxb-1 Mutant Trigeminal nerve exit point Facial nerve Trigeminal motor neurons Facial motor neurons Hoxb-1 r2 r4 r3 r5 r6 Trigeminal-like motor neurons

13 Developmental Biology III
HOM/Hox Genes Fail to Cover the Most Anterior Region of the Central Nervous System. What Kind of Genes Specify the Brain??

14 Developmental Biology III
The Drosophila Central Nervous System is Segmented Green dots: cells expressing Engrailed, a segment-polarity gene Confocal micriscopy image of a fly embryo at stage 14

15 Developmental Biology III
ショウジョウバエ胚における分節遺伝子 engrailedの発現

16 Developmental Biology III
Fruit Fly Brain at Stage 14 (10 hours) Green: neurons. Red: Brain Specific Homeobox Protein.  Blue:major axonal tracts stained with anti-FAS II

17 Developmental Biology III
Homeobox-Containing Genes, otd and ems, Control Segmental Organization of the Embryonic Fly Brain

18 Developmental Biology III
otd/Otx and ems/Emx Genes Control the Formation of the Vertebrate Brain

19 Developmental Biology III
Genetic Programs of Brain Development are Evolutionary Conserved between Flies and Vertebrates

20 Developmental Biology III
Structures of Drosophila, Human and Ascidian otd/Otx Genes タンパク構造の比較 ホメオドメインのアミノ酸配列の比較

21 Developmental Biology III
Human Otx Gene Restores Brain Patterning in Drosophila otd Mutant

22 Developmental Biology III
Rescue with Fly otd gene The Drosophila otd Genes Restores Brain Patterning in Mouse Otx Mutants WT Otx-/- Otx-/- WT Genetic Rescue with Fly otd gene

23 Developmental Biology III
Cross-Phylum Conservation of Major Axonal Tracts between Flies and Vertebrates Drosophila Zebrafish

24 Inversion of Dorso-Ventral Patterns between Protostomes and Deuterostomes
Arthoropods Vertebrates

25 Despite the Apparent Inversion, Genetic Programs of Brain Development is Evolutionary Conserved

26 Common Origin of the Animal Brain
Developmental Biology III

27 Neuroscience Text Books
Developmental Biology III Neuroscience Text Books Principles of Neuroscience, 5th ed. 2012, Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., Jessel, T. M., Siegelbaum, S. A., and Hudspeth, A. J., McGrae Hill. Physiology of Behavior, 10th ed, 2009, Carlson, N. R. , Allyn & Bacon. カールソン 神経科学テキスト 脳と行動、2010、丸善。 Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd ed, 2008, Squire L.R et al., Academic Press.

28 Developmental Biology III
Neuroscience Focuses on Molecular Genetic and Behavioral Problems Fundamental Neuroscience 53 Chapters Electrophysiology     3 Genes and Molecules   51 Behavior and Cognition 10       

29 シリーズ脳科学 東京大学出版会 第1巻 脳の計算論 第2巻 認識と行動の脳科学 第3巻 言語と思考を生む脳 第4巻 脳の発生と発達 第5巻 分子・細胞・シナプスからみる脳 第6巻 精神の脳科学 新・脳の探検、上下、ブルーバックス. 記憶と情動の脳科学、ブルーバックス. 私の脳科学講義、利根川進、岩波新書.

30 Developmental Biology III
ショウジョウバエ胚の脳(レーザ共焦点顕微鏡画像) Eyeless &Twin of Eyeless

31 Developmental Biology III

32 Developmental Biology III

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