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OLD DOG CONSULTING Challenges and Solutions for OAM in Point-to-Multipoint MPLS Adrian Farrel, Old Dog Consulting Ltd. Zafar Ali, Cisco Systems, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "OLD DOG CONSULTING Challenges and Solutions for OAM in Point-to-Multipoint MPLS Adrian Farrel, Old Dog Consulting Ltd. Zafar Ali, Cisco Systems, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 OLD DOG CONSULTING Challenges and Solutions for OAM in Point-to-Multipoint MPLS Adrian Farrel, Old Dog Consulting Ltd. Zafar Ali, Cisco Systems, Inc.

2 OLD DOG CONSULTING 2 Outline P2P LSP Ping Extending P2P LSP Ping for P2MP LSPs P2P Traceroute Traceroute for P2MP LSP Trees Pro-active Connection Verification Summary

3 OLD DOG CONSULTING P2P LSP Ping: In a Nutshell R4 LSP MPLS Echo Reply Use the same label stack as used by the LSP so that Echo Request flows in band of LSP under test. The IP header destination address field of the echo request is a 127/8 address so that it is not forwarded at the destination. Echo Reply has destination IP address/port copied from the Echo Request’s source address/port. It is returned as IP or MPLS traffic. MPLS Echo Request Header 50 SA DA= 127/8 SA=Source Addr DA=Destination Addr FEC R1 R2 R3 Header 19 SA DA= 127/8 FEC Header 32 SA DA= 127/8 FEC

4 OLD DOG CONSULTING 4 MPLS LSP Ping Essentials MPLS LSP Ping messages are UDP-encapsulated Echo Requests contain basic fields and TLVs Most important TLV is the Target FEC Stack Identifies the LSP being tested LDP IPv4/6 prefix RSVP IPv4/6 session and sender template VPN IPv4/6 prefix BGP labeled IPv4 prefix, etc.

5 OLD DOG CONSULTING P2P LSP Ping: Detecting Broken LSP LSP Broken Echo Request is addressed to 127/8 address so it is not forwarded if the LSP is broken. It is delivered locally and causes an Echo Response. If LSP is broken on a link, error is detected through lack of response. R4 MPLS Echo Reply MPLS Echo Request Header 50 SA DA= 127/8 SA=Source Addr DA=Destination Addr FEC R1 R2 R3 Header 19 SA DA= 127/8 FEC

6 OLD DOG CONSULTING R1 R3 LSP 1 LSP 2 R2 R4 LSP Ping is initiated from R1 through LSP1 Owing to an error on R2, all data intended for LSP 1 is switched into LSP 2. This includes the Echo Request. R4 examines the Target FEC Stack on the received Echo Request and recognizes that it is not the intended recipient. It sends an Echo Response with an error code. P2P LSP Ping: Detecting a Misrouted LSP

7 OLD DOG CONSULTING 7 P2MP LSP Ping: In a Nutshell Reuses existing LSP Ping mechanisms Echo Request messages follow the same data path that normal MPLS packets would traverse (including packet replication) Main differences are in LSP Identification/ Target FEC Stack MPLS echo-req + P2MP LSP Identifier R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R7 R5 MPLS Echo Reply P2MP LSP

8 OLD DOG CONSULTING 8 Identifying P2MP LSPs LSPs still identified using the Target FEC Stack MPLS-TE LSPs identified by Session and Sender Template Just like P2P, but fields have slightly different meanings P2MP ID used instead of Destination Address Mirrors the differences in RSVP-TE Sub-Group ID is not used Multicast LDP LSPs identified by multicast FEC Root address and opaque value Just as used in multicast LDP

9 OLD DOG CONSULTING 9 Detecting a Broken P2MP LSP Echo Request is addressed to 127/8 address so it is not forwarded if the LSP is broken. It is delivered locally and causes an Echo Response. If LSP is broken on a link, error is detected through lack of response MPLS echo-req + P2MP LSP Identifier R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R7 R5 MPLS Echo Reply P2MP LSP

10 OLD DOG CONSULTING 10 Detecting a Misrouted P2MP LSP Owing to broken LFIB or incorrect replication at R2 the Echo Request reaches R8 R8 recognizes that it is NOT an Egress for “Target (P2MP) FEC” in the Echo Request and sends an Echo Response with an error code MPLS echo-req + P2MP LSP Identifier R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R7 R5 MPLS Echo Reply P2MP LSP R

11 OLD DOG CONSULTING 11 P2MP LSP Ping: Issues and Challenges If you send a Ping to the whole P2MP tree you will get an Echo Response from each leaf The number of egresses (leaves) in a P2MP tree can be tens, hundreds, or even thousands The initiator (the ingress) may become swamped The network around the initiator may be swamped UDP rate limiting is also recommended Lost Echo Replies lead to false negatives Other traffic may be adversely affected Solutions Ping a single target Jitter the responses

12 OLD DOG CONSULTING 12 Egress Filtering Echo Request is in-band so still reaches all egresses Target egress is identified by P2MP Egress Identifier TLV Only the target egress sends an Echo Response Can target one egress or whole tree MPLS echo-req + P2MP LSP Identifier and Egress Identifier R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R7 R5 MPLS Echo Reply P2MP LSP

13 OLD DOG CONSULTING 13 Jittered Responses Optional Procedure initiated by Ingress Jitter Range is specified by the Ingress in the Echo Jitter TLV in the Echo Request Egress sends Echo Response at randomly selected time within Jitter Range interval MPLS echo-req + P2MP LSP Identifier and Jitter Range TLV R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R7 R5 MPLS Echo Reply P2MP LSP

14 OLD DOG CONSULTING 14 P2P LSP Traceroute R4R5R3R1 R2 TTL TTL=1 Traceroute is used for hop-by-hop fault localization as well as path tracing MPLS Echo Requests are sent with increasing TTL to “probe” the LSP from upstream LSRs Echo Request forwarded as normal if TTL > 1 When TTL expires the Echo Request is passed to the control plane Checks that it is indeed a transit LSR for this P2P MPLS LSP Reply contains the label and interface for reaching the downstream router, in Downstream Mapping TLV TTL=1

15 OLD DOG CONSULTING 15 P2MP Traceroute: In a Nutshell MPLS Echo Request MPLS Echo Reply w/ Downstream Mapping TLVs TTL R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R5 TTL=1 1 2 B=1, E=0 B=0, E=0 TTL=1 IP Bud Node R7 R8 3 B=0, E=1 Similar to P2P Traceroute with the following differences Echo Request replicated onto all branches with identical TTL A branch node may need to identify more than one downstream interface and label Helpful to identify branch and bud nodes Branch Node is identified by B-flag Bud Node is identified by E-flag

16 OLD DOG CONSULTING 16 P2MP Traceroute : Challenges Multiple downstream interfaces/labels Multiple Downstream Mapping TLVs already allowed (ECMP) Scalability worse than for simple LSP Ping Note that in IP multicast the traceroute is from destination to source This might not be viable in MPLS since the previous MPLS hop might not be on the IP path to the ingress Response jittering still available Egress filtering can be used Does a transit node know that it is on the path to the target egress? Need to correlate the echo responses at ingress (to identify branches in the P2MP tree) New B and E flags identify branch and bud nodes Downstream Mapping TLVs help But correlating Echo Responses to construct the tree is still hard

17 OLD DOG CONSULTING 17 Egress Filtering Egress filtering is possible in P2MP RSVP-TE An LSR only responds if it lies on the path of the P2MP LSP to the egress identified by the P2MP Egress Identifier TLV Possible because RSVP-TE identifies the destinations Egress filtering is NOT possible for multicast LDP A transit LSR of a multicast LDP LSP is unable to determine whether it lies on the path to any one destination Unfiltered (full tree) traceroute is possible for all LSPs MPLS Echo Request Egress Identifier R4 MPLS Echo Reply w/ Downstream Mapping TLV TTL R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R5 TTL=1

18 OLD DOG CONSULTING 18 Correlating Traceroute Responses Problem is that traceroute for the whole tree will return many responses to ingress Hard to work out which LSP hops belong where in the tree Solution has three components Indicate branch/bud status using flags (mandatory) Indicate outgoing interface and label in Downstream Mapping TLV (mandatory) List the destinations reachable through each outgoing interface/label (optional and only for RSVP-TE) Achieved using new Downstream Mapping Multipath Information MPLS echo-req (All Egresses) MPLS Echo Reply w/ Downstream Mapping TLVs TTL R1 R2 R3 R4 R6 R5 TTL=1 1 2 B=1, E=0, {R3, R4} B=0, E=0, {R6} TTL=1 IP Bud Node R7 R8 3 B=0, E=1, {R7, R8}

19 OLD DOG CONSULTING 19 Connection Verification Probing A new approach to the scalability problem Particularly useful for pro-active fault detection A new Connection Verification LSP Ping message is sent by the ingress Each destination responds to say the CV process has been started Each destination expects to receive a new CV message within a specific time period Non-receipt causes the destination to raise an alarm Local action and Echo Response message Process can be enabled and disabled by ingress Can also be applied to P2P LSPs

20 OLD DOG CONSULTING 20 References RFC 4687 Operations and Management (OAM) Requirements for Point-to- Multipoint MPLS Networks draft-ietf-mpls-p2mp-lsp-ping Detecting Data Plane Failures in Point-to-Multipoint Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) - Extensions to LSP Ping (work in progress) RFC 4379 Detecting Multi-Protocol Label Switched (MPLS) Data Plane Failures [MPLS LSP Ping] draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-te-p2mp Extensions to RSVP-TE for Point to Multipoint TE LSPs (work in progress) draft-ietf-mpls-ldp-p2mp Label Distribution Protocol Extensions for Point-to-Multipoint and Multipoint-to-Multipoint Label Switched Paths (work in progress) draft-swallow-mpls-mcast-cv Connectivity Verification for Multicast Label Switched Paths (work in progress)

21 OLD DOG CONSULTING 21 Summary LSP Ping and Traceroute function for P2MP MPLS LSPs builds on established P2P technology Objective is to test LSPs periodically or in response to faults Detect and isolate faults Scalability is a big concern LSP tree may have thousands of egresses Jittered responses eases the issue of the ingress being swamped Egress filtering allows targeting of a single egress Not possible for traceroute of multicast LDP LSPs Scalability and security requirements call for rate limiting, but that can lead to false negatives New work on pro-active fault detection using Connection Verification message Multipoint to multipoint LSPs not currently addressed

22 OLD DOG CONSULTING 22 Questions? Adrian Farrel Zafar Ali


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