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By Jim Mustard for J Fraser Mustard The Founders’ Network Founding Chairman Council for Early Child Development February 6, 2009 Socioeconomic Determinants.

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Presentation on theme: "By Jim Mustard for J Fraser Mustard The Founders’ Network Founding Chairman Council for Early Child Development February 6, 2009 Socioeconomic Determinants."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Jim Mustard for J Fraser Mustard The Founders’ Network Founding Chairman Council for Early Child Development February 6, 2009 Socioeconomic Determinants of Health, Learning, and Behaviour: How Do Societies Achieve Equity from the Start? Winnipeg, Manitoba Evolving Perspectives in Immersion Education in the Global Village

2 How do diverse populations with different cultures and language communicate with each other?

3 Canada set a target of being a bilingual country.

4 What is the best time to learn two or more languages?

5 World Health Organization Michael Marmot Inequalities in Health and Development Closing the Gap in a Generation WHO, August 2008

6 Chapter 5 Equity From the Start Hertzman and Marmot Equity: actions, treatment of others, or a general condition characterized by justice, fairness, and impartiality WHO, August 2008

7 Science of Early Child Development “The science of ECD shows that brain development is highly sensitive to external influences in early childhood starting in utero with life long effects.” WHO, 2008

8 Developmental Neurobiology

9 03-080 Health Learning (literacy) Behaviour Experience-Based Brain development in the early years of life sets neurological and biological pathways that affect throughout life:

10 Why do we care about brains? You are your brain. BUT Your brain is not just produced by your genes. Your brain is sculpted by a lifetime of experiences. The most important time in brain development is the first few years of life. Kolb, U Lethbridge 08-039

11 What is experience? Everything that you encounter both pre- and postnatally as well as in adulthood… Examples: sounds, touch, vision, smell, food, thoughts, drugs, injury, disease… Kolb, U Lethbridge 08-026

12 Does Experience have the Same Effects on Brain Development at Different Times in Life? No ! There are qualitative differences at different stages of life. There is something fundamentally different prenatally vs infancy vs juvenile vs adult. One difference is gene expression. Kolb, U Lethbridge 08-029

13 All the neurons have the same DNA. How do they differentiate for their diverse functions? 08-081

14 Diamond & Hopson, 1998 “The nerve cell, or neuron resembles a miniature tree…” A newborn has @100 billion neurons when they are born and form 1 trillion connections by the time they are 3

15 SIGNAL- SENDING NEURON RECIPIENT NEURON Synapse Dendrite Axon Two Neurons 04-039

16 03-012 Synaptic Density Rethinking the Brain, Families and Work Institute, Rima Shore, 1997. At Birth6 Years Old14 Years Old

17 02-066 The Fear Response or Stress Pathway Visual Cortex Visual Thalamus Amygdala Scientific American The Hidden Mind, 2002, Volume 12, Number 1

18 Amygdala and Hippocampus


20 Sensory Stimuli PIT Cortisol CRF ACTH AmygdalaHippocampus Adrenal Cortex Hypothalamus PVN + + - - LeDoux, Synaptic Self 03-002 Prefrontal Cortex

21 Limbic HPA Pathway - Stress Cortisol – Over Production Behaviour (ADHD, violence), depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction Cortisol – Under Production Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma 05-212

22 01-012 "Significant correlation with registered criminality (teenage) appeared for language development at 6, 18, and 24 months.” Early verbal skill development depends upon language exposure which requires holding the infant and toddler (touch). Early Learning and Criminal Behaviour Stattin, H. et al 102; 369, 1993 Journal of Abnormal Psychology

23 A “Natural” Experiment: Romanian Orphan Adoption Children adopted into middle class homes after 8 months in the orphanages show at 11 years in contrast to children adopted early: 1.Abnormal brain development (small brain, low metabolic activity, abnormal EEG) 2.Social and cognitive problems (IQ loss) 3.High vulnerability to behavioural problems (ADHD, aggression) Kolb, U Lethbridge 08-031

24 Epigenetics (nature and nurture) The process by which normal gene expression is altered by experience. Genotype vs Phenotype 08-014

25 The Brain and Literacy

26 Brain Pathways “Higher levels of brain circuits depend on precise, reliable information from lower levels in order to accomplish their function. Sensitive periods for development of lower level circuits ends early in life. High level circuits remain plastic for a longer period.” Knudsen 2004 07-123

27 Early Child Development and Language Starts early – first 7 months Sets capability for mastering multiple languages Sets literacy and language learning trajectory 04-200

28 0 1 481216 AGE Human Brain Development – Language and Cognition Sensing Pathways (vision, hearing) Language Higher Cognitive Function 3 6 9 -3 -6 MonthsYears C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 2000. Conception 01-003

29 Kolb & Whishaw, 2009 09-018 Brain Areas Activated by Language Tasks

30 Kolb & Whishaw, 2009 09-019 Neural Webs for Language Tasks

31 Early Experience and Brain Architecture and Function Affects gene expression and neural pathways Shapes emotion, regulates temperament and social development Shapes perceptual and cognitive ability Shapes physical and mental health and behaviour in adult life Shapes physical activity (e.g. skiing, swimming, etc.) Shapes language and literacy capability 07-001

32 The Brain and French Immersion 07-105

33 01-040 Levels of Literacy: A Reflection of ECD Level 1: Level 2: Level 3: Level 4: indicates persons with very poor skills. people can deal with material that is simple. 42% of Canadians is considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life. people who demonstrate command of higher-order processing skills. Level 5:competence in sophisticated reading tasks, managing information and critical thinking skills.

34 Enrollment in EFI and CE by SES SES Core English (CE)Early French Immersion (EFI) 09-015 Willms, 2008 Lower 20%Middle 20%Highest 20% 88 12 82 18 76 24 68 32 59 41

35 Assessment Results 09-016 Willms, 2008 No French Immersion Early French Immersion N = 558 N = 358 % with scores below 1.0 % with scores below 1.0 General Knowledge 12 5.3 Behaviour 105.6 Cognition 15.13.9 Language and Communication 14.12.2 Physical 12.23.4

36 Enrollment by Program (%) 09-017 Willms, 2008 Grade 1 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 10 Grade 12 Core English 69 77 60 73 82 Late French Immersion -- -- 17 11 9 Early French Immersion 31 23 23 16 9

37 Abecedarian Study – Reading Age 8Age 12Age 15Age 21 Age at Testing 0 1.2 0.8 0.4 Effect Size Primary Grades PreschoolPreschool & Primary Grades 04-153

38 Public Expenditures - Early Childhood Programs Selected OECD Countries (%), 2004

39 Rates of Return to Human Development Investment Across all Ages Pre-school Programs School Job Training Return Per $ Invested R 2 4 6 8 0618 Age Pre- School Post School 03-074 Carneiro, Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003

40 Preschools Chaos Child care Parenting centres Children’s mental health centres Kindergartens Local school authoriti es Public health Munici- palities Communi ty services Parks & recreation Early intervention Health Social services Education Family support

41 IT takes a Village to Raise a Child What does it take to raise a village?

42 Changing the Way we do things Whether the issue is early human development, childcare, french immersion, food security, youth engagement, literacy, suicide, global warming, poverty, employment, crime, civil societies….

43 All our governance systems must move towards an intersectoral/holistic approach. This is especially important at the local level where services, programs and relational supports need to be connected and integrated towards a communities vision

44 The Components to Raise the Village The Message: Critical importance of early human development - hope The Process: who to involve, where to start, questions to ask, steps to follow. The Content: What are the components that create a comprehensive and integrated system of programs and supports The Evidence: EDI, 18 month screening…

45 School communities are a natural place to start to engage the broader community with an inclusive and meaningful process.

46 Process

47 It’s all about relationships

48 Get the Message Out ! Regional Leaders Retreats  The revitalization of community comes through citizen participation and through having communities that understand EHD and value all their families and children.  An important first step in mobilizing community is to foster and encourage the coming together of a new cross sectoral leadership - with the usual and unusual suspects - to share their knowledge, assess needs, determine priorities and then commit to act!

49 CARS-Communities Achieving Responsive Services- “Road Map” *Begins with what currently exists in the community and collectively plans the future-involves stakeholders. *Develops a common community vision, community values, and community action plan *Mobilizes community partners and resources. *Is ongoing, celebrates and revitalizes the “village” *Developing regional models of integration will help to provide evidence and to inform policy framework towards universality.

50 Content

51 The integration and coordination of quality ECD community based services and supports-works! ECD & parenting centres Parents Supporting Parents Play & nature Based activities Toy and resource libraries Nutrition program Family Resource Programs Information & referral services Pre/Postnatal Health Care Early Intervention Pediatric Care Home/Local-based satellites Libraries Home-visiting network Recreation Programs Family Child Care Specialized services Childcare

52 evidence

53 03-085 Early Development Instrument (EDI) Physical health and well-being Communication skills and general knowledge Social knowledge and competence Emotional health/maturity Language and cognitive development

54 Decrease in the % of vulnerable children as a result of improved ECD in Western Australia Year 2003 2006 Floreat47.22%14.3% Wembley 47.11% 11.8% AEDI 07-204

55 Canada – EDI Children 5-6 yrs Adapted from NLSCY/UEY 1999-2000; EDI 1999-2000 07-026 % Vulnerable Q1Q2Q3Q4 SES - Income 30 20 10 0

56 Cost to Individuals and Canadian Society of Poor Early Child Development (estimates) Crime and Violence $120 Billion/year Mental Health $100 Billion/year Behaviour and Drug Use 07-158

57 Guiding Principles This about support for the family and development of the “whole child.” Explore, play and celebrate -not schoolification Intrinsic motivation is a key In the process everyone needs to feel included, valued with a sense of belonging. Share the load - no matter the age or the stage of life. Relationship based change where each family is a gift to our community. Creating a leaderful world where Being at our best means not being the best at everything! Each of us has a gift that when combined with others creates a ship full of leaders and that’s leadership

58 Growing Together from our infants to our elders Creating Resilient Communities It’s not about putting all our eggs in one basket… but by each of us putting one egg in “this basket” of support for families and children, we can celebrate the common wealth we create in ensuring equity from the start for every child.

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