Presentation on theme: "Approaching and answering Question 4"— Presentation transcript:
1 Approaching and answering Question 4 Section A - Reading Question 4: Language ComparisonApproaching and answering Question 4Remind students that the tools they need are, simply, a pen and a highlighter. As well as their brains and hard work!
2 Question 4: Language Comparison 16 marks25 minutesYou need to COMPARE OR CONTRAST 3 or 4 devices (techniques, or features) used in two textsAnalyse the effect of some of these devices; comment on similarities and differences of the two textsAsk students what they recall about this question.Remind them of the details on the slide.Unlike some other subject, compare in English means compare & contrast
3 Hint: Think about Question 2 Language devices used by non-fiction writers. Which can we recall? In a different colour, suggest a typical effect of these devices.Class brainstorm of linguistic devices that students can recall.Hint: Think about Question 2
4 Common linguistic devices 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint)Rhyme & RhythmAnecdote & AllusionDirectly addressing the readerSlogan & CatchphraseStatistics & FactsImperativesExaggeration & HyperboleRhetorical questionsRepetitionRegister - Formal/Informal languageHumourListsDiction - Simple/Complex vocabularyEmotive languagePunctuation typeFigurative Language & Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/Expert adviceShort sentencesPersonification etc.SuperlativesWord play & punsAlliterationPrint a copy for students. Students can ‘audit’ their knowledge of these language features by highlighting the ones they think they would be confident in identifying (and, looking forward to the writing section, using themselves).
5 How is language used for effect? Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without commenting on specific linguistic devices, you can talk about the kind of language a writer uses, noticing what kind of words are used, or what kind of tone or style is created by language and structure. Look at these examples…The writer uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced by the Indians who are attacked.Powerful words such as “war”, “huge” and “ruining” emphasise and perhaps exaggerate the seriousness of the issue.Stress that this question is not merely a ‘hunt’ for language devices. Students still need to be showing a sound understanding of the articles, and can talk about the kind of language used (e.g. positive / negative, formal / informal, descriptive / factual, serious / humorous, dramatic / neutral etc.The writer uses a chatty, informal tone, using contractions like “I’m” “don’t” and “can’t”.Language is highly descriptive, with adjectives such as “golden” and “spectacular” conveying the writer’s appreciation for his surroundings.
6 Name of Language Device(s) Some common linguistic devices. What are they?ExampleName of Language Device(s)“According to UK government calculations, 214 of the most senior eurocrats get paid more than David Cameron's £178,000 a year.”“Human lives are nothing but a series of unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.”“Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax avoidance controversy”“Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax credit threshold? Who's fighting against families being rehoused miles away from their children's school? Who's calling for more social housing?”“The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks, vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and people.”Starter or settling activity.Higher ability groups should be able to identify the language devices used in the short quotes in the example column.
7 Name of Language Device(s) Some common linguistic devices. What are they?ExampleName of Language Device(s)“According to UK government calculations, 214 of the most senior eurocrats get paid more than David Cameron's £178,000 a year.”“Human lives are nothing but a series of unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.”“Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax avoidance controversy”“Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax credit threshold? Who's fighting against families being rehoused miles away from their children's school? Who's calling for more social housing?”“The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks, vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and people.”Starter or settling activity.This handout includes prompts (language devices found in the examples which students can choose from).Look out for: statistics and figures, directly addressing the reader, repetition,alliteration, personification, sibilance, lists, rhetorical questions, humour, exaggeration…
8 2.Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts.Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts of the text where language creates a certain effect, and serves the purpose of the article (e.g. to inform, persuade or describe).The language question is always the same: It will ask you to compare Text 3 (or ‘Source 3’) with either Text 1 or Text 2.Highlight words, phrases, passages, statistics etc. that will help you answer the question.You might like to annotate the texts very briefly with ideas that will help you answer the question.Step 2 is actively reading. Tell students to follow the steps above.For this question, students can briefly annotate highlighted sections with brief comments about the language used.Put students in an even number of groups, and have students in the class working on two articles which can be compared in a Question 4 answer.
9 3.Writing up ideasNow you’re ready to write up your ideasCompare how language is used for effect in one of the texts, and then the other in each paragraph. Conclude by giving reasons for similarities / differences.Pepper your points with short quotes which give examples of how language is used for effect. They need to be analysed, as you need to suggest how these effects are created by the writers.Remind students of the steps above while writing their response.IN PAIRS
10 USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES 3. The author / language in the text… ConnectiveThe author / language in the text…The reader…(or ‘we’…)FirstlySecondlyThirdlyAs well as thisFurthermoreMoreoverFinallyLastlyLikewiseSimilarlyUnlikeAs well asIn contrast toadvisesarguesbuildsconnotescontrastsconveyscreatesdemonstratesdescribesdepictsemphasisesevokesexaggeratesgives the impressiongives a sensehighlightsinformsImpliesIndicatesJuxtaposesNarratesPersuadesRealisesRecognisesRefers toReflectsRepresentsRevealsSignifiesSuggestsSymbolisesShowsTellsIs made awareIs informedIs toldIs shocked / fascinated / persuaded / made to sympathise etc.LearnsDiscoversStudents should ONLY use words / phrases they’re comfortable with. There’s no time to experiment!Column 1: Useful connectives to organise a response, and to compare and contrast.Column 2: Active verbs that may be used to explain / analyse.Column 3: Passive, and then active, sentence constructions that may be used when referring to the reader or audience.USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES
11 Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in Everest the Hard Way and Rafting on the Grand Canyon.Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.ON YOUR OWN
12 Question 4: Language Comparison – Sample Mark Scheme Students can swap an attempt with someone else in the class for them to peer assess against the mark scheme.