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Section A - Reading Question 4: Language Comparison Approaching and answering Question 4.

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1 Section A - Reading Question 4: Language Comparison Approaching and answering Question 4

2 Question 4: Language Comparison 16 marks 16 marks 25 minutes 25 minutes You need to COMPARE OR CONTRAST 3 or 4 devices (techniques, or features) used in two texts You need to COMPARE OR CONTRAST 3 or 4 devices (techniques, or features) used in two texts Analyse the effect of some of these devices; comment on similarities and differences of the two texts Analyse the effect of some of these devices; comment on similarities and differences of the two texts

3 Language devices used by non-fiction writers. Which can we recall? In a different colour, suggest a typical effect of these devices. Hint: Think about Question 2

4 Common linguistic devices 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint) 1st, 2nd or 3rd person (narrative viewpoint) Directly addressing the reader Directly addressing the reader Imperatives Imperatives Rhetorical questions Rhetorical questions Register - Formal/Informal language Register - Formal/Informal language Diction - Simple/Complex vocabulary Diction - Simple/Complex vocabulary Figurative Language & Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/ Figurative Language & Imagery: Similes/Metaphor/ Personification etc. Word play & puns Word play & puns Alliteration Alliteration Rhyme & Rhythm Rhyme & Rhythm Anecdote & Allusion Anecdote & Allusion Slogan & Catchphrase Slogan & Catchphrase Statistics & Facts Statistics & Facts Exaggeration & Hyperbole Exaggeration & Hyperbole Repetition Repetition Humour Humour Lists Lists Emotive language Emotive language Punctuation type Punctuation type Expert advice Expert advice Short sentences Short sentences Superlatives Superlatives

5 How is language used for effect? Language is always used for some kind of effect or other. Often, without commenting on specific linguistic devices, you can talk about the kind of language a writer uses, noticing what kind of words are used, or what kind of tone or style is created by language and structure. Look at these examples… Powerful words such as “war”, “huge” and “ruining” emphasise and perhaps exaggerate the seriousness of the issue. The writer uses a chatty, informal tone, using contractions like “I’m” “don’t” and “can’t”. The writer uses dramatic and violent language in order to describe the horror of the attack at the end of the extract. Phrases like “chill horror”, “sudden fear” and “thunderous crack” portray the fear and terror experienced by the Indians who are attacked. Language is highly descriptive, with adjectives such as “golden” and “spectacular” conveying the writer’s appreciation for his surroundings.

6 Some common linguistic devices. What are they? Example Name of Language Device(s) “According to UK government calculations, 214 of the most senior eurocrats get paid more than David Cameron's £178,000 a year.” “Human lives are nothing but a series of unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.” “Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax avoidance controversy” “Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax credit threshold? Who's fighting against families being rehoused miles away from their children's school? Who's calling for more social housing?” “The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks, vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and people.”

7 Some common linguistic devices. What are they? Example Name of Language Device(s) “According to UK government calculations, 214 of the most senior eurocrats get paid more than David Cameron's £178,000 a year.” “Human lives are nothing but a series of unfortunate upgrades. Yes, even yours.” “Starbucks wakes up and smells the stench of tax avoidance controversy” “Who's opposing the benefit cap? Who's calling for a ringfence of council tax benefits for families in need? Who's arguing to maintain the child tax credit threshold? Who's fighting against families being rehoused miles away from their children's school? Who's calling for more social housing?” “The ferry was packed with buses, petrol tanks, vans, land cruisers, jeeps, fuel tankers, cars – and people.” Look out for: statistics and figures, directly addressing the reader, repetition, alliteration, personification, sibilance, lists, rhetorical questions, humour, exaggeration… Look out for: statistics and figures, directly addressing the reader, repetition, alliteration, personification, sibilance, lists, rhetorical questions, humour, exaggeration…

8 2.2. Actively read the text: You are looking for particular parts of the text where language creates a certain effect, and serves the purpose of the article (e.g. to inform, persuade or describe). The language question is always the same: It will ask you to compare Text 3 (or ‘Source 3’) with either Text 1 or Text 2. Highlight words, phrases, passages, statistics etc. that will help you answer the question. You might like to annotate the texts very briefly with ideas that will help you answer the question. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in the two texts. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are.

9 3.3. Now you’re ready to write up your ideas Compare how language is used for effect in one of the texts, and then the other in each paragraph. Conclude by giving reasons for similarities / differences. Pepper your points with short quotes which give examples of how language is used for effect. They need to be analysed, as you need to suggest how these effects are created by the writers. Writing up ideas IN PAIRS

10 Connective The author / language in the text… The reader… (or ‘we’…) Firstly Secondly Thirdly As well as this Furthermore Moreover Finally Lastly Likewise Similarly Unlike As well as In contrast to advises argues builds connotes contrasts conveys creates demonstrates describes depicts emphasises evokes exaggerates gives the impression gives a sense highlights informs Implies Indicates Juxtaposes Narrates Persuades Realises Recognises Refers to Reflects Represents Reveals Signifies Suggests Symbolises Shows Tells Is made aware Is informed Is told Is shocked / fascinated / persuaded / made to sympathise etc. Learns Discovers Realises 3.3. USEFUL WORDS & PHRASES

11 Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in Everest the Hard Way and Rafting on the Grand Canyon. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. Compare the different ways in which language is used for effect in Everest the Hard Way and Rafting on the Grand Canyon. Give some examples and analyse what the effects are. ON YOUR OWN

12 Question 4: Language Comparison – Sample Mark Scheme


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