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ISQS 6339, Data Management and Business Intelligence Cubism – Measures and Dimensions Zhangxi Lin Texas Tech University 1.

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Presentation on theme: "ISQS 6339, Data Management and Business Intelligence Cubism – Measures and Dimensions Zhangxi Lin Texas Tech University 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISQS 6339, Data Management and Business Intelligence Cubism – Measures and Dimensions Zhangxi Lin Texas Tech University 1

2 Outline Measures Where we’ve been Populating fact table Types of dimensions 2

3 Structure and Components of Business Intelligence 3 SSMS SSIS SSAS SSRS SAS EM SAS EM SAS EG SAS EG

4 Snowflake Schema of the Data Mart 4 Manufacturingfact DimProduct DimProductSubType DimProductType DimBatch DimMachine DimMachineType DimMaterial DimPlant DimCountry

5 Where we’ve been and where we are now Exercise 1: Getting started Exercise 2: Creating a data mart with SSMS Exercise 3: Creating data mart with BIDS Exercise 4: Populating dimensions of a data mart Exercise 5: Loading fact tables Exercise 6: Create and customize a cube 5

6 What we need to do with the half-done data mart? Populate DimBatch dimenstion table Populate ManufacturingFact table Build an OLAP cube (we already did this before) Check measures Check dimensions 6


8 Facts Facts are measurements associated with a specific business process. Many facts can be derived from other facts, including additive and semiadditive facts. Non-additive facts can be avoided by calculating it from additive facts. Measures are clustered together in a group, called measure group. 8

9 Types of measures Three types ◦ Additive measures. Most facts are additive (calculative), such as sum ◦ Semiadditive measures. The measures that can be added along some dimensions, but not along others. For example, inventory level can be added along product dimension but not time dimension. ◦ Non-additive (such as max, average), or descriptive (e.g. factless fact table). Aggregate functions ◦ Additive: Sum ◦ Semiadditive: ByAccount, Count, FirstChild, FirstNonEmpty, LastChild, LastNonEmpty, Max, Min ◦ Nonadditive: DistinctCount, None.

10 Measures and dimensions Dimensions are used to aggregate measures. Therefore, they must be somehow related to measures Granularity ◦ Important for the analysis ◦ There could be missing values in the fact table


12 Exercise 5: Loading Fact Tables Project name: MMMFactLoad-lastname Package name: FactLoad.dtsx Tasks ◦ Create Inventory Fact table ◦ Load Dim Batch ◦ Load Manufacturing Fact ◦ Load Inventory Fact Deliverable: a screenshot of the “green” outcome of the ETL project to with a subject title “ISQS 6339 EX5 - ” 12

13 Inventory Fact Table Create a Table InventoryFact in your database. ◦ Compound primary key: DateOfInventory, ProductCode, and Material ◦ Define two foreign keys Column NameData TypeAllow Nulls InventoryLevelIntNo NumberOnBackorderIntNo DateOfInventoryDatatimeNo ProductCodeIntNo MaterialVarchar(30)No 13

14 Data Sources for Loading Fact For loading DimBatch table and ManufacturingFact table ◦ BatchInfo.CSV For loading InventortyFact table ◦ Lin.OrderProcessingSystem Database 14

15 Control Flow for Loading Facts and the Remaining Dimension Note: to ease debugging, you may use three packages and test them one by one, instead of doing everything in one package 15

16 Flat File Connection Data types ◦ BatchNumber, MachinNumber: four-byte signed integer [DT_I4] ◦ ProductCode, NumberProduced, NumberRejected: four-byte signed integer [DT_I4] ◦ TimeStarted, TimeStopped: database timestamp [DT_DBTimeStamp] Only check BatchNumber as the input of Dim Batch All columns are needed for fact tables 16

17 Some Frequently Used Nodes

18 Load DimBatch Data Flow 18

19 Load DimBatch Data Flow 19 Note: Because of duplication in the source file, we may insert An Aggregate item after the Flat File Source item.

20 The Flat File Source 20

21 21 Sort Transformation In the Aggregate item, Define “Group-by” BatchNumber. In Derived column item, Define BatchName From BatchNumber Use the expression (DT_WSTR, 50)[BatchNumber] To change the data type Of BatchName.

22 Load Fact Data Flow 22

23 Derived Columns for the Fact table 23

24 Expressions for the Derived Columns AcceptedProducts ◦ [NumberProduced] – [NumberRejected] ElapsedTimeForManufacture ◦ DATEDIFF(“mi”, [TimeStarted],[TimeStopped]) DateOfManufacture ◦ (DT_DBTIMESTAMP)SUBSTRING((DT_WSTR,25)[TimeS tarted],1,10)  This expression converts TimeStarted into a string and selects the first ten characters of that string. This string is then converted back into a date time, without the time portion. 24

25 25 OLE DB Destination For loading the fact table

26 Load Inventory Fact OLE DB Source ◦ OrderProcessingSystem.InventoryFact OLE DB Destination ◦ MaxMinManufacturingDM-lastname.InventoryFact No transformation There are two ways to loading the table ◦ Create the table and use ETL to load it ◦ Import directly from the source to the database MaxMinManufacturingDM-lastname 26

27 Debugging Results 27 Loading DimBatch Loading ManufacturingFact


29 Exercise 6: Design a Cube Project name: ISQS6339_EX6_2015_lastname Tasks ◦ Add in new date items (year, quarter, and month) to two fact tables ◦ Create time dimension using Manufacturing Fact table ◦ Define calculated measures (Total Products, Percent Rejected) ◦ Define hierarchies of attributes in dimension tables ◦ Create a cube from the MaxMinManufacturing data mart with hierarchical date dimension Deliverable: ◦ Screenshots: dimension hierarchies, dimensions, relationships of facts and dimensions, deployment result, format of measures, and browsing results. 29

30 Three Steps to Create a Cube from Data Sources Defining data source Defining data source view ◦ Add in three new columns of year, quarter, and month for the two fact tables Building a cube. ◦ Define a new dimension Dim Time from Manufacturing Fact table Customize the cube: ◦ Link two fact tables in a cube ◦ Define new primary key for Dim Time ◦ Define calculated measures ◦ Relate dimensions to measures 30

31 T-SQL Expressions for DS View Definition - Manufacture YearOfManufacture CONVERT(char(4),YEAR(DateOfManufacture)) QuarterOfManufacture CONVERT(char(4), YEAR(DateOfManufacture)) + CASE WHEN MONTH (DateOfManufacture) BETWEEN 1 AND 3 THEN 'Q1' WHEN MONTH (DateOfManufacture) BETWEEN 4 AND 6 THEN 'Q2' WHEN MONTH (DateOfManufacture) BETWEEN 7 AND 9 THEN 'Q3' ELSE 'Q4' END MonthOfManufacture CONVERT(char(4), YEAR(DateOfManufacture)) + RIGHT('0'+CONVERT(varchar(2), MONTH(DateOfManufacture)),2) 31

32 T-SQL Expressions for DS View Definition - Inventory YearOfInventory CONVERT(char(4),YEAR(DateOfInventory)) QuarterOfInventory CONVERT(char(4), YEAR(DateOfInventory)) + CASE WHEN MONTH (DateOfInventory) BETWEEN 1 AND 3 THEN 'Q1' WHEN MONTH (DateOfInventory) BETWEEN 4 AND 6 THEN 'Q2' WHEN MONTH (DateOfInventory) BETWEEN 7 AND 9 THEN 'Q3' ELSE 'Q4' END MonthOfInventory CONVERT(char(4), YEAR(DateOfInventory)) + RIGHT('0'+CONVERT(varchar(2), MONTH(DateOfInventory)),2) 32

33 Data Source View 33 New columns

34 Select Measures Page 34 Uncheck Manufacture Fact Count

35 35 The finished cube

36 36 Cube Structure

37 37 Defining a format string

38 38 Inventory measures “Number on Backorder” is also set with these two parameters

39 Calculated measures – made-up facts The definition of calculated measure is stored in the OLAP cube itself. The actual values that result from a calculated measure are not calculated, however, until a query containing that calculated measure is executed. The results of that calculation are then cached in the cube. The cached value is then delivered to any subsequent users requesting the same calculation. The expressions of calculation are created using a language known as Multidimensional Expression Language (MDX) script. MDX is different from T-SQL. It is a special language with features designed to handle the advanced mathematics and formulas required by OLAP analysis. This is not found in T-SQL. 39


41 41

42 42 DIMENSIONS in SQL Server

43 Types of Dimensions Fact dimensions: the Dimensions created from attributes in a fact table Parent-Child dimensions: Built on a table containing a self- referential relationship, such as a parent attribute. Role playing dimensions: related to the same measure group multiple times; each relationship represents a different role the dimension play; for example, time dimension plays three different roles: date of sale, data of shipment, and date of payment. ◦ To create a role playing dimension, add the dimension to the Dimension Usage tab multiple times. Then create a relationship between each instance of the dimension and the measure group. Reference dimensions: Not related directly to the measure group but to another regular dimension which in turn related to the measure group Data mining dimensions: the information discovered by data mining Many-to-many dimensions: e.g. multiple ship to addresses Slowly changing dimensions 43

44 Slowly changing dimensions Type 1 SCD – no track Type 2 SCD – tracking the entire history, adding four attributes: SCD Original ID, SCD Start Date, SCD End Date, SCD Status Type 3 SCD – Similar to Type 2 SCD but only track current state and the original state; two additional attribute: SCD Start Date, SCD Initial Value

45 Add a time dimension (a fact dimension)


47 Rename time dimension

48 Date Hierarchy


50 Material Hierarchy & Plant Hierarchy

51 Product Hierarchy

52 Relating Dimensions in the Cube

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