4Iran Post-WWI Nationalism Grows Changes to Modernize Formerly Persia Shahs (kings) were both influenced and controlled by Great Britain & RussiaRussia (revolution) loses interest; Persians fight British for control & winChanged name to IranChanges to ModernizeBegan to industrializeGranted women rightsOpened public schools
5Interest in Middle East Economic ChangeWestern companies discover large oil reserves in the Middle East in 1920sOil was (and is) needed for industrializationThese countries become rich as they sell the oil to Europe and AmericaWestern countries would begin to try and gain power in these lands
6Pahlavi Dynasty ( )Ruled Iran from the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925Reza Shah is seen by supporters as the modernizing force of IranHe expanded oil production, built Iran’s infrastructure (roads/railroads), and introduced western educationHe constantly played USSR and UK against each other and reached out to Nazi Germany for tradeHowever, by the mid-1930s Reza Shah's dictatorial style of rule caused dissatisfaction among some groups
7Iran and World War IIDuring WWII, Iran’s location and oil was needed by the AlliesUSSR and Britain invaded the country in in order to secure oil fieldsReza Shah was forced to abdicateHe was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Shah PahlaviFollowing WWII, the Soviet Union refused to leave IranIn1946, the US threatened to invade Iran and remove the Soviets by force, so the Soviets left
8Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Became Prime Minister in 1951. Got rid of corrupt military officialsNationalized the foreign oil companies – ending British domination of Iranian Oil and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC)Q4
9Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh The UK and US boycotted all Iranian Oil Mossadegh began to sell oil to the Soviets instead!This was a threat to US and UK economic and security interestsUS Pres. Eisenhower saw this as a Communist threatQ4
10Political ChaosAs Mossadegh's power and popularity grew, so did political chaos. The friction between the Shah and the prime minister was heightened by Mossadegh's unwillingness to change his position on the oil issue. This chaos led to intervention by the United States.
111953 CIA coup overthrew Mossadegh CIA and British intelligence (MI6) worked together to overthrow the Mossadegh (he would die under house arrest in 1967)The CIA and SIS, handpicked General Fazlollah Zahedi to succeed Prime Minister Mohammed MossadeghUS covertly funneled $5 million to General Zahedi's regime two days after the coup prevailed.
12ResultsShah given more power in Iran, but became increasingly paranoidShah began a program of modernization and westernizationShah was allied with the US, and the US supported the ShahAs the Shah became more unpopular, so did the US!
13A Democratic Middle East? “Had Mossadegh been left in power, he would have built a democratic Iran, thus paving the way for other democracies to take root in the Middle East. America's shortsightedness reverberates today in the disastrous state of the region.”--Nosratollah Amini, former mayor of Tehran and attorney to Prime Minister Mossadegh
14What followed was a cozy and symbiotic relationship between the US and the Shah for a quarter of a century.
15For the US, the relationship meant: Economically, the Shah maintained the interests of the US corporations, particularly the oil companies, aerospace industry, and financial institutions.This included purchasing military goodsBy the mid 1970s, the Shah was the largest buyer of US military goods
16It should be noted that in the 1970s, the US told the Shah to expand Iran’s non-oil energy base by building a number of nuclear power plants. One such plant, which started to be built in the mid 1970s is in Bushehr:
18Shah Reza Pahlavi (r – 1977)Institutes Western reforms & ties with the WestThe majority of his people live in poverty.Brutal suppression of dissidentsSAVAK (secret police)
19The “White Revolution” - 1963 The Shah’s attempted reformsDivested the clergy of their vast landholdingsDeclared new rights for womenRight to voteRight to attend universityDramatically increased urbanization and industrializationMany saw this as Iran becoming too Westernized and abandoning Iranian/Islamic traditionsExiles the Ayatollah Khomeini after he criticizes the Shah
20Ayatollah Khomeini (r. 1979-1989) 1902 – 1989.Became an Islamic scholarBegan to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s.Arrested and imprisoned several times by the Shah.Exiled in 1978 & went to France.
21Allah Hu Akbar, Marg Bar Shah! By 1979, demonstrations increased demanding the Shah be deposedDemonstrators demanded the return of the exiled Ayatollah KhomeiniThe country was out of control
22The Shah with President Jimmy Carter Throughout the turmoil, the US stayed loyal to the Shah
23“Iran is an island of stability in one of the more troubled areas of the world. This is a great tribute to you, Your Majesty, and to your leadership and to the respect, admiration and love which your people give to you. There is no leader in the world for whom I feel such deep gratitude and personal friendship as the Shah.”-President Jimmy Carter, The New York Times, January 1, 1978.
25An “island of stability,” Iran was not! Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi’s modernization programs were unpopular.In 1979, Iran exploded in revolutionary turmoil.Masses of people, from every segment of society, poured into the streets to end the rule of the Shah.
26Reasons for the Fall of the Shah The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware.Little money to reinvest back into the Iranian economy.Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.”Government corruption.The Shah’s constitutional violations of the basic human rights of his citizens.
27Why it happened? Opposition to the Shah (Sunni) was wide spread Many Shiites wanted the Iran governed by Islamic lawThe Islamic clergy became the voice of oppositionThe revolution was governed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (Shiite)
29Opponents of the Shah On your Left Side, Oil field workersStudents and other intellectualsMiddle class businessmenIranian nationalistsMuslim clericsOn your Left Side,Why do you think each of these groups had issues with the Shah’s reign?Explain and give examples.
30On your Left Side, answer: What cause of the Iranian Revolution does this political button address?
31Anarchy & RevolutionThe Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79. Facing likely execution should he return to Iran, he died in exile in Egypt
32Ayatollah Khomeini Leads the Revolution Khomeini returns to Iran on February 11, 1979 as Supreme Leader
33Around 6:30 am on November 4, the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line (500 Islamic students) forced themselves into the U.S. embassy in the capital city of Teheran.
35Iran After Revolution Government Change Theocracy Iran goes from a Shah (king) to an Islamic Republic with a theocratic constitutionTheocracyReligious governmentGod is seen as head of stateAll laws must be in line with religion (in this case Islam)
37Islamic State ReturnsEnemies of the Islamic Revolution are tried and executedAll political parties and organizations are bannedIndependent and non-Islamic newspapers are closed.Banks and Industries are Nationalized.
38Iranian Revolution Escalates US interests in the Persian Gulf are threatened.No access to Iranian OilCancellation of $7 billion of uncompleted arms contractsAnti American sentiment runs high – US was “The Great Satan”
44Why it happened…Khomeini, who had returned to Iran in triumph in February 1979, presided over the establishment of an Islamic republic. On November 4, 1979, after the Shah had been allowed entry into the United States for medical care (cancer), relations with the United States broke down
45Iran: Takes American Hostages On November 4,1979, a mob of around 500 Iranian students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran66 Americans taken hostage14 were released early on, but 52 would remain captive for 444 days (Jan. 20, 1981)
46Iran Hostage Crisis Argo Codename for an operation where the CIA saved 6 U.S. diplomats from Iran at the timeThese 6 diplomats were not taken as hostages – they had escaped out of the back of the embassy compound and eventually were hidden by the Canadian AmbassadorMade into a movie
47After many months of negotiations, the US and Iran signed the Algiers Accord in 1980, setting up the Hague Tribunal to settle all financial claims between the US and Iran.Iran agreed to release the hostages and pay reparations to the US corporations. The US agreed to unfreeze the Iranian assets and not to interfere in Iran’s affairs again.Alerassool, M. (1993). Freezing assets. New York: St. Martin Press.Fayazmanesh, S. (2003). “The Politics of US Economic Sanctions,” Review of Radical Political Economics.
48…. “it is and from now on will be the policy of the U. S ….“it is and from now on will be the policy of the U.S. not to intervene, directly or indirectly, politically, or militarily, in Iran’s internal affairs.”This was viewed as a major victory over the West by a middle-eastern Muslim country.
50EFFECTS: 1979 Iran Hostage Crisis Anti-Iranian feeling in USPresident Carter seen as having failed to gain release of hostagesConservative Republican President Ronald Reagan won 1980 Presidential election in USHostages released on Reagan’s inauguration in exchange for $8 billion ($5 billion was used by Iran to pay debts to US anyway)Khomeini needed money with war against Iraq looming
51Will go more in depth when we cover Iraq Iran-Iraq WarWill go more in depth when we cover Iraq
52The relationship between Iran and Iraq had been a stormy one during the Shah’s reign. The Shah had tried to destabilize the Iraqi government in 1972 on behest of the US and Israel.Iraq had territorial claims over entire Shatt al-Arab (Arvand river) which runs from Iraq through part of Iran into the Persian GulfIraq feared the Islamic Revolution in Iran would inspire the oppressed Shiite minority in Iraq to revoltSaddam Hussain and the Shah of Iran, 1975
53The war lasted from September 22, 1980-August 20, 1988 It lasted 8 years and was conducted in the style of WWI, using masses of people in the trenchesResulted in massive losses of men and money on both sides (including the use of chemical weapons)President Carter declared “strict neutrality in the conflict ”on the part of the US.The US actually sent military support through Iraq’s allies Kuwait and Saudi Arabia
54Despite the US help, Iraq could not win the war. Thus, when in 1986, Iran scored victories in Iraq’s Faw peninsula, the US engaged Iran directly.it re-flagged Kuwaiti ships,it sunk Iranian boats and oil platforms, andUSS Vincennes shot down an Iranian civilian plane, killing 290 on board.
55The shooting down of the Iranian civilian airliner by the US was the beginning of the end of the Iran-Iraq War.Iran reached the conclusion that they could not win a war against the US and Iraq. They therefore accepted a ceasefire in 1988.The end result was a complete stalemate.All borders were returned to prewar agreements.Note: all US actions were contrary to the Algiers Accord.
58Policy ChallengesIran is the first country in which Islamists have had to deliver on the promises of a society characterized by social justice and moral propriety.During the first decade of the Islamic RepublicSome redistribution of wealthNew leadership came mostly from humble or middle-class backgroundsAdopted policies that helped the poorest IraniansRural developmentHealthWomen’s educationRoadsPoverty, inequality, and underemployment continued to be major public grievances.
59Population grows by one million a year. Policy ChallengesJob creation has been very inadequate.Need to increase economic output.Population grows by one million a year.Discontent spurred out migration from the countryOne in four Iranians with higher education live abroadIranians now often have family abroad in the US, Canada, and EuropeCorruptionDissatisfaction with the status quo among some of Iran’s ethnic minorities
60Inspired TerrorismIn the 1980s, Iran's theocratic government turned the country into a center for the propagation of terrorism abroad. It sponsored, financed, and armed such factions as Hezbollah & HamasRevolutionary leaders became heroes to fanatics all over the worldInspired the founders of the Afghan Taliban, which would eventually give rise to Osama bin-Laden and al Qaeda
61Women in IranA woman’s hijab represents her Islamic and moral values.
62Political Cartoon Commentary On your Left side:What is the message of this political cartoon?Explain.The dictatorship is gone! Bring on the dictatorship!
63Support for the Palestinian Cause Funds Hamas and Hezbollah.The Ayatollah with Yasir Arafat.
67Institutions of the Islamic Republic Iran is a theocracy – a government ruled by religious leaders.Authoritarianism (not totalitarianism) – leaders claim to be all powerful, but do not interfere with every aspect of the citizens livesUnion of political & religious authorityShi’ism & Sharia – key components of everyday life
68Institutions of the Islamic Republic Supreme LeaderHighest authority in the Islamic RepublicCombines religious and temporal authorityAssembly of ExpertsChoose the LeaderPresidentElected by universal suffrage every four yearsMust be a male Twelver Shiite; does not have to be a clericMajlis - Parliament290 elected members88 elected Mujtahids (Islamic theologians)All candidates must be approved by the Guardian Council
69Pros and Cons of Theocracy 1. Likely totalitarian: bills easily passed and imposed2. Strict discipline, so less crime3. Very adherent to religious principles4. High patriotism and morale in the case of economic/natural disaster5. Organized, orderly and effective government1. Powers of leader are likely to be used for corrupt practices2. Conservative; limited change3. Radical, easy to swing to fanatical state4. Indoctrination, propaganda, no freedom of the press5. Hard for non-clerics to create sweeping change or initiate new ideas
70Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei Replaced Ayatollah Khomeini – June 1989
71Iranian Presidents since Khomeini’s Death Hashemi RafsanjaniMohammad KhatamiMahmoud AhmadinejadHassan Rouhani2013-
72Akbar Hasemi Rafsanjani Two time Iranian presidentDecided to revive nuclear program in 1980’sLost to Ahmadinejad in 2005 electionSeeks to cooperate with UN regarding nuclear program
73Mohammad Khatami Shia theologian and Reformist politician Khatami advocated freedom of expression, tolerance, and civil societyWanted to improve diplomatic relations with Asia and European UnionFree market economy and foreign investmentan outspoken critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
74Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Degree in Engineering Elected mayor of Tehran in 2003Won ~60% of the popular vote in 2005 presidential electionOutspoken and often controversial for his views on Israel, the US, Great Britain, and human rightsHard stance on belief that Iran should possess nuclear weapons
75Hassan RouhaniAn Islamic cleric and a former member of the Majlis & the Assembly of ExpertsDescribed as a centrist - supports personal freedom & free access to informationAppointed women to government positionsSeen as a reformist who has improved Iran's diplomatic relations with other countries through exchanging lettersSept. 27, Speaks with President Barack Obama by telephone, the first direct conversation between leaders of Iran and the United States since 1979
76Iranian Relations with Western Nations Today there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and The USDo not exchange ambassadors-Iran maintains an interests section at thePakistani embassy in Washington D.C-US maintains an interests section at theSwiss embassy in Tehran
77Hostility Hostility begins after the 1979 Iranian Revolution US fears that Iran is developing nuclear weapons shortly after the RevolutionUnited States launched Operation Praying Mantis against Iran 1988Largest American naval combat operation since World War IIUS District court judge says that the Iran was responsible for the 1983 attack on US Embassy1995-the United States starts an embargo on trade with IranUS Fed court finds 1996 Khobar Towers bombing was authorized by Ali Khomeini (Ayatollah of Iran)
78Iranian Nuclear Program Since 2003 the US has alleged that Iran has a program to develop nuclear weaponsIran says that its nuclear program is only to generate electricityUS and Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation TreatyUS and other countries in violation for not disarmingIran in violation for not reporting nuclear material to IAEAMarch – US and European countries call on Security Council of UN to act against IranMahmoud Ahmadinejad continued to escalate this issue by restricting UN inspectors’ access to Iranian facilities
79(c) Copyright 2005 Daniel Heradstveit & G. Matthew Bonham President G. W. Bush State of the Union Address29 January 2002“States like these [North Korea, Iran, and Iraq] and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world. By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes pose a grave and growing danger. They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred. They could attack our allies or attempt to blackmail the United States. In any of these cases, the price of indifference would be catastrophic.”The “Axis of Evil” is a “creative metaphor”—a metaphor that is capable of giving us a new understanding of the world. In this respect, it is a kind of cognitive breakthrough—an attempt to restructure the international system as it was in the 1930’s—an attempt to see the world through the eyes of the 1930’s.
81Iran vs. Israel Today Iran Threatens Israel Israeli Response Iranian President Ahmadinejad refuses to recognize the existence of IsraelWorking to create a nuclear weapon to destroy IsraelIsraeli ResponseSept Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu tells the U.N. that Israel will attack Iran if in nuclear dangerDrew a “red line” that if Iran crosses, it will mean war
842009 Election ProtestsThe 2009 Iranian Presidential Election sparked peaceful and violent protests over disputed election results.The incumbent president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, won the election in a landslide, 64.22% to 33.86% for challenger Mir-Hossein Mousavi.Mousavi and his supporters claimed widespread election fraud, maintaining that Mousavi should have won.
852009 Election ProtestsThe violence escalated, and some protest marches turned into riots.Government security forces cracked down on both peaceful and violent protests.Government supported paramilitary Basij militiamen attacked marchers, sometimes with gunfire, supported by regular police forces.Videos of protests:Pictures of protests:
862009 Election ProtestsMany protests were organized through Twitter and text messaging, while the world quickly got word of the protests through the internet.The death of one protester, Neda Agha-Soltan, was captured on video, and she quickly became a rallying point for the protesters.Most of the protests had stopped by mid-August, but smaller protests occurred into After the wave of revolutions in the Arab world, more protests started, but were quickly put down.Between 36 and 72 people were killed, and many more injured in the violence.
90On your Left Side, answer: Is this cartoon in support of Ahmadinejad or Mousavi?Who are the bearded men in black meant to symbolize?What is the skeletal remains of the horse meant to represent?What does the artist imply about the reform movement’s opinion of the United States?
92On your Left Side, answer: Is this cartoon in support of Ahmadinejad or Mousavi?What does the cartoon suggest about the role of the Supreme Leader in the election?Who or what is the “loser” according to the cartoon?What does this cartoon imply about democracy in Iran?
95PINOCCHIAYATOLLAH Scott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05 An American view of Iranian nuclear power: What children’s story is this political cartoon playing off of?PINOCCHIAYATOLLAH Scott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05
96A view of Iran’s nuclear power from Al-Jazeerah Nobody else (particularly Iran and Arab countries) should have nuclear weapons except Israel, says Bush Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03
97Iran’s Nuclear Program (Cont.) There have been multiple rounds of negotiations between Iran and the so-called P5+1, which comprises the five permanent members of the UN Security Council - the US, UK, France, China, Russia - and Germany.For years they failed to make headway.But the mood changed after the election of Hassan Rouhani as president in June 2013.Five months later, following secret bilateral talks between the US and Iran, negotiators agreed an interim deal.
98Summary of Treaty What Iran will do: Halt enrichment of uranium above 5% purity"Neutralise" its stockpile of near-20%-enriched uraniumNot install any more centrifuges (the machines used to enrich uranium) What world powers will do:Not impose further nuclear-related sanctionsSuspend certain sanctions on tradeTransfer $4.2bn (£2.6bn) to Iran in installments from sales of its oil
99Iran’s Nuclear Program (Cont.) The deadline for the final agreement is November 24, 2014The US and Iran have been having secret diplomatic correspondence trying to reach a permanent dealIran has recently agreed to turn over its uranium to RussiaRussia will convert it to fuel rods for power plantsMakes the uranium useless for making a weaponIf no deal is reached, Iran will be hit with a new round of heavy economic sanctions!All sides are publicly confident an agreement can be reached