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Islamic Fundamentalism

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1 Islamic Fundamentalism
Iran Islamic Fundamentalism

2 Map: The Persian Cat

3 Iranian Oil Resources

4 Iran Post-WWI Nationalism Grows Changes to Modernize Formerly Persia
Shahs (kings) were both influenced and controlled by Great Britain & Russia Russia (revolution) loses interest; Persians fight British for control & win Changed name to Iran Changes to Modernize Began to industrialize Granted women rights Opened public schools

5 Interest in Middle East
Economic Change Western companies discover large oil reserves in the Middle East in 1920s Oil was (and is) needed for industrialization These countries become rich as they sell the oil to Europe and America Western countries would begin to try and gain power in these lands

6 Pahlavi Dynasty ( ) Ruled Iran from the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 Reza Shah is seen by supporters as the modernizing force of Iran He expanded oil production, built Iran’s infrastructure (roads/railroads), and introduced western education He constantly played USSR and UK against each other and reached out to Nazi Germany for trade However, by the mid-1930s Reza Shah's dictatorial style of rule caused dissatisfaction among some groups

7 Iran and World War II During WWII, Iran’s location and oil was needed by the Allies USSR and Britain invaded the country in in order to secure oil fields Reza Shah was forced to abdicate He was replaced by his son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Following WWII, the Soviet Union refused to leave Iran In1946, the US threatened to invade Iran and remove the Soviets by force, so the Soviets left

8 Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Became Prime Minister in 1951.
Got rid of corrupt military officials Nationalized the foreign oil companies – ending British domination of Iranian Oil and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) Q4

9 Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh The UK and US boycotted all Iranian Oil
Mossadegh began to sell oil to the Soviets instead! This was a threat to US and UK economic and security interests US Pres. Eisenhower saw this as a Communist threat Q4

10 Political Chaos As Mossadegh's power and popularity grew, so did political chaos.  The friction between the Shah and the prime minister was heightened by Mossadegh's unwillingness to change his position on the oil issue.  This chaos led to intervention by the United States. 

11 1953 CIA coup overthrew Mossadegh
CIA and British intelligence (MI6) worked together to overthrow the Mossadegh (he would die under house arrest in 1967) The CIA and SIS, handpicked General Fazlollah Zahedi to succeed Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh US covertly funneled $5 million to General Zahedi's regime two days after the coup prevailed.

12 Results Shah given more power in Iran, but became increasingly paranoid Shah began a program of modernization and westernization Shah was allied with the US, and the US supported the Shah As the Shah became more unpopular, so did the US!

13 A Democratic Middle East?
“Had Mossadegh been left in power, he would have built a democratic Iran, thus paving the way for other democracies to take root in the Middle East. America's shortsightedness reverberates today in the disastrous state of the region.” --Nosratollah Amini, former mayor of Tehran and attorney to Prime Minister Mossadegh

14 What followed was a cozy and symbiotic relationship between the US and the Shah for a quarter of a century.

15 For the US, the relationship meant:
Economically, the Shah maintained the interests of the US corporations, particularly the oil companies, aerospace industry, and financial institutions. This included purchasing military goods By the mid 1970s, the Shah was the largest buyer of US military goods

16 It should be noted that in the 1970s, the US told the Shah to expand Iran’s non-oil energy base by building a number of nuclear power plants. One such plant, which started to be built in the mid 1970s is in Bushehr:

17 Iran under Shah Reza Pahlavi ( )

18 Shah Reza Pahlavi (r – 1977) Institutes Western reforms & ties with the West The majority of his people live in poverty. Brutal suppression of dissidents SAVAK (secret police)

19 The “White Revolution” - 1963
The Shah’s attempted reforms Divested the clergy of their vast landholdings Declared new rights for women Right to vote Right to attend university Dramatically increased urbanization and industrialization Many saw this as Iran becoming too Westernized and abandoning Iranian/Islamic traditions Exiles the Ayatollah Khomeini after he criticizes the Shah

20 Ayatollah Khomeini (r. 1979-1989)
1902 – 1989. Became an Islamic scholar Began to speak out against the Shah in the 1960s. Arrested and imprisoned several times by the Shah. Exiled in 1978 & went to France.

21 Allah Hu Akbar, Marg Bar Shah!
By 1979, demonstrations increased demanding the Shah be deposed Demonstrators demanded the return of the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini The country was out of control

22 The Shah with President Jimmy Carter
Throughout the turmoil, the US stayed loyal to the Shah

23 “Iran is an island of stability in one of the more troubled areas of the world. This is a great tribute to you, Your Majesty, and to your leadership and to the respect, admiration and love which your people give to you. There is no leader in the world for whom I feel such deep gratitude and personal friendship as the Shah.” -President Jimmy Carter, The New York Times, January 1, 1978.

24 The Iranian Revolution

25 An “island of stability,” Iran was not!
Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi’s modernization programs were unpopular. In 1979, Iran exploded in revolutionary turmoil. Masses of people, from every segment of society, poured into the streets to end the rule of the Shah.

26 Reasons for the Fall of the Shah
The Shah spent the oil profits for top of the line American military hardware. Little money to reinvest back into the Iranian economy. Religious leaders angry with the Shah for too much “Westernization.” Government corruption. The Shah’s constitutional violations of the basic human rights of his citizens.

27 Why it happened? Opposition to the Shah (Sunni) was wide spread
Many Shiites wanted the Iran governed by Islamic law The Islamic clergy became the voice of opposition The revolution was governed by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (Shiite)

28 Anti-Shah Protests

29 Opponents of the Shah On your Left Side,
Oil field workers Students and other intellectuals Middle class businessmen Iranian nationalists Muslim clerics On your Left Side, Why do you think each of these groups had issues with the Shah’s reign? Explain and give examples.

30 On your Left Side, answer:
What cause of the Iranian Revolution does this political button address?

31 Anarchy & Revolution The Shah leaves Iran on 1/16/79. Facing likely execution should he return to Iran, he died in exile in Egypt

32 Ayatollah Khomeini Leads the Revolution
Khomeini returns to Iran on February 11, 1979 as Supreme Leader

33 Around 6:30 am on November 4, the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line (500 Islamic students) forced themselves into the U.S. embassy in the capital city of Teheran.

34 Islamic Fundamentalism and Theocracy in Iran

35 Iran After Revolution Government Change Theocracy
Iran goes from a Shah (king) to an Islamic Republic with a theocratic constitution Theocracy Religious government God is seen as head of state All laws must be in line with religion (in this case Islam)

36 Iran’s Government (AYATOLLAH)

37 Islamic State Returns Enemies of the Islamic Revolution are tried and executed All political parties and organizations are banned Independent and non-Islamic newspapers are closed. Banks and Industries are Nationalized.

38 Iranian Revolution Escalates
US interests in the Persian Gulf are threatened. No access to Iranian Oil Cancellation of $7 billion of uncompleted arms contracts Anti American sentiment runs high – US was “The Great Satan”

39 SAVAK Suspects Taken

40 The Fate of the Shah’s Generals


42 Iranian Revolutionary Poster
The caption reads: When the devil leaves, the angel returns!

43 American Hostages Crisis

44 Why it happened… Khomeini, who had returned to Iran in triumph in February 1979, presided over the establishment of an Islamic republic.   On November 4, 1979, after the Shah had been allowed entry into the United States for medical care (cancer), relations with the United States broke down

45 Iran: Takes American Hostages
On November 4,1979, a mob of around 500 Iranian students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran 66 Americans taken hostage 14 were released early on, but 52 would remain captive for 444 days (Jan. 20, 1981)

46 Iran Hostage Crisis Argo
Codename for an operation where the CIA saved 6 U.S. diplomats from Iran at the time These 6 diplomats were not taken as hostages – they had escaped out of the back of the embassy compound and eventually were hidden by the Canadian Ambassador Made into a movie

47 After many months of negotiations, the US and Iran signed the Algiers Accord in 1980, setting up the Hague Tribunal to settle all financial claims between the US and Iran. Iran agreed to release the hostages and pay reparations to the US corporations. The US agreed to unfreeze the Iranian assets and not to interfere in Iran’s affairs again. Alerassool, M. (1993). Freezing assets. New York: St. Martin Press. Fayazmanesh, S. (2003). “The Politics of US Economic Sanctions,” Review of Radical Political Economics.

48 …. “it is and from now on will be the policy of the U. S
….“it is and from now on will be the policy of the U.S. not to intervene, directly or indirectly, politically, or militarily, in Iran’s internal affairs.” This was viewed as a major victory over the West by a middle-eastern Muslim country.

49 52 American Hostages Released in Jan., 1981

50 EFFECTS: 1979 Iran Hostage Crisis
Anti-Iranian feeling in US President Carter seen as having failed to gain release of hostages Conservative Republican President Ronald Reagan won 1980 Presidential election in US Hostages released on Reagan’s inauguration in exchange for $8 billion ($5 billion was used by Iran to pay debts to US anyway) Khomeini needed money with war against Iraq looming

51 Will go more in depth when we cover Iraq
Iran-Iraq War Will go more in depth when we cover Iraq

52 The relationship between Iran and Iraq had been a stormy one during the Shah’s reign.
The Shah had tried to destabilize the Iraqi government in 1972 on behest of the US and Israel. Iraq had territorial claims over entire Shatt al-Arab (Arvand river) which runs from Iraq through part of Iran into the Persian Gulf Iraq feared the Islamic Revolution in Iran would inspire the oppressed Shiite minority in Iraq to revolt Saddam Hussain and the Shah of Iran, 1975

53 The war lasted from September 22, 1980-August 20, 1988
It lasted 8 years and was conducted in the style of WWI, using masses of people in the trenches Resulted in massive losses of men and money on both sides (including the use of chemical weapons) President Carter declared “strict neutrality in the conflict ”on the part of the US. The US actually sent military support through Iraq’s allies Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

54 Despite the US help, Iraq could not win the war.
Thus, when in 1986, Iran scored victories in Iraq’s Faw peninsula, the US engaged Iran directly. it re-flagged Kuwaiti ships, it sunk Iranian boats and oil platforms, and USS Vincennes shot down an Iranian civilian plane, killing 290 on board.

55 The shooting down of the Iranian civilian airliner by the US was the beginning of the end of the Iran-Iraq War. Iran reached the conclusion that they could not win a war against the US and Iraq. They therefore accepted a ceasefire in 1988. The end result was a complete stalemate. All borders were returned to prewar agreements. Note: all US actions were contrary to the Algiers Accord.

56 The Islamic Republic of Iran

57 The Khomeini Revolution

58 Policy Challenges Iran is the first country in which Islamists have had to deliver on the promises of a society characterized by social justice and moral propriety. During the first decade of the Islamic Republic Some redistribution of wealth New leadership came mostly from humble or middle-class backgrounds Adopted policies that helped the poorest Iranians Rural development Health Women’s education Roads Poverty, inequality, and underemployment continued to be major public grievances.

59 Population grows by one million a year.
Policy Challenges Job creation has been very inadequate. Need to increase economic output. Population grows by one million a year. Discontent spurred out migration from the country One in four Iranians with higher education live abroad Iranians now often have family abroad in the US, Canada, and Europe Corruption Dissatisfaction with the status quo among some of Iran’s ethnic minorities

60 Inspired Terrorism In the 1980s, Iran's theocratic government turned the country into a center for the propagation of terrorism abroad.  It sponsored, financed, and armed such factions as Hezbollah & Hamas Revolutionary leaders became heroes to fanatics all over the world Inspired the founders of the Afghan Taliban, which would eventually give rise to Osama bin-Laden and al Qaeda

61 Women in Iran A woman’s hijab represents her Islamic and moral values.

62 Political Cartoon Commentary
On your Left side: What is the message of this political cartoon? Explain. The dictatorship is gone! Bring on the dictatorship!

63 Support for the Palestinian Cause
Funds Hamas and Hezbollah. The Ayatollah with Yasir Arafat.

64 the Ayatollah Khomeini
Iran Since the Death of the Ayatollah Khomeini

65 Khomeini’s Death (June, 1989)

66 Iran: Government

67 Institutions of the Islamic Republic
Iran is a theocracy – a government ruled by religious leaders. Authoritarianism (not totalitarianism) – leaders claim to be all powerful, but do not interfere with every aspect of the citizens lives Union of political & religious authority Shi’ism & Sharia – key components of everyday life

68 Institutions of the Islamic Republic
Supreme Leader Highest authority in the Islamic Republic Combines religious and temporal authority Assembly of Experts Choose the Leader President Elected by universal suffrage every four years Must be a male Twelver Shiite; does not have to be a cleric Majlis - Parliament 290 elected members 88 elected Mujtahids (Islamic theologians) All candidates must be approved by the Guardian Council

69 Pros and Cons of Theocracy
1. Likely totalitarian: bills easily passed and imposed 2. Strict discipline, so less crime 3. Very adherent to religious principles 4. High patriotism and morale in the case of economic/natural disaster 5. Organized, orderly and effective government 1. Powers of leader are likely to be used for corrupt practices 2. Conservative; limited change 3. Radical, easy to swing to fanatical state 4. Indoctrination, propaganda, no freedom of the press 5. Hard for non-clerics to create sweeping change or initiate new ideas

70 Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
Replaced Ayatollah Khomeini – June 1989

71 Iranian Presidents since Khomeini’s Death
Hashemi Rafsanjani Mohammad Khatami Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Hassan Rouhani 2013-

72 Akbar Hasemi Rafsanjani
Two time Iranian president Decided to revive nuclear program in 1980’s Lost to Ahmadinejad in 2005 election Seeks to cooperate with UN regarding nuclear program

73 Mohammad Khatami Shia theologian and Reformist politician
Khatami advocated freedom of expression, tolerance, and civil society Wanted to improve diplomatic relations with Asia and European Union Free market economy and foreign investment an outspoken critic of former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

74 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Degree in Engineering
Elected mayor of Tehran in 2003 Won ~60% of the popular vote in 2005 presidential election Outspoken and often controversial for his views on Israel, the US, Great Britain, and human rights Hard stance on belief that Iran should possess nuclear weapons

75 Hassan Rouhani An Islamic cleric and a former member of the Majlis & the Assembly of Experts Described as a centrist - supports personal freedom & free access to information Appointed women to government positions Seen as a reformist who has improved Iran's diplomatic relations with other countries through exchanging letters Sept. 27, Speaks with President Barack Obama by telephone, the first direct conversation between leaders of Iran and the United States since 1979

76 Iranian Relations with Western Nations
Today there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and The US Do not exchange ambassadors -Iran maintains an interests section at the Pakistani embassy in Washington D.C -US maintains an interests section at the Swiss embassy in Tehran

77 Hostility Hostility begins after the 1979 Iranian Revolution
US fears that Iran is developing nuclear weapons shortly after the Revolution United States launched Operation Praying Mantis against Iran 1988 Largest American naval combat operation since World War II US District court judge says that the Iran was responsible for the 1983 attack on US Embassy 1995-the United States starts an embargo on trade with Iran US Fed court finds 1996 Khobar Towers bombing was authorized by Ali Khomeini (Ayatollah of Iran)

78 Iranian Nuclear Program
Since 2003 the US has alleged that Iran has a program to develop nuclear weapons Iran says that its nuclear program is only to generate electricity US and Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty US and other countries in violation for not disarming Iran in violation for not reporting nuclear material to IAEA March – US and European countries call on Security Council of UN to act against Iran Mahmoud Ahmadinejad continued to escalate this issue by restricting UN inspectors’ access to Iranian facilities

79 (c) Copyright 2005 Daniel Heradstveit & G. Matthew Bonham
President G. W. Bush State of the Union Address 29 January 2002 “States like these [North Korea, Iran, and Iraq] and their terrorist allies, constitute an axis of evil, arming to threaten the peace of the world.  By seeking weapons of mass destruction, these regimes pose a grave and growing danger.  They could provide these arms to terrorists, giving them the means to match their hatred.  They could attack our allies or attempt to blackmail the United States.  In any of these cases, the price of indifference would be catastrophic.” The “Axis of Evil” is a “creative metaphor”—a metaphor that is capable of giving us a new understanding of the world. In this respect, it is a kind of cognitive breakthrough—an attempt to restructure the international system as it was in the 1930’s—an attempt to see the world through the eyes of the 1930’s.

80 Iran vs. Israel Today

81 Iran vs. Israel Today Iran Threatens Israel Israeli Response
Iranian President Ahmadinejad refuses to recognize the existence of Israel Working to create a nuclear weapon to destroy Israel Israeli Response Sept Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu tells the U.N. that Israel will attack Iran if in nuclear danger Drew a “red line” that if Iran crosses, it will mean war

82 Iran vs. Israel Today

83 Iran vs. Israel Today

84 2009 Election Protests The 2009 Iranian Presidential Election sparked peaceful and violent protests over disputed election results. The incumbent president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, won the election in a landslide, 64.22% to 33.86% for challenger Mir-Hossein Mousavi. Mousavi and his supporters claimed widespread election fraud, maintaining that Mousavi should have won.

85 2009 Election Protests The violence escalated, and some protest marches turned into riots. Government security forces cracked down on both peaceful and violent protests. Government supported paramilitary Basij militiamen attacked marchers, sometimes with gunfire, supported by regular police forces. Videos of protests: Pictures of protests:

86 2009 Election Protests Many protests were organized through Twitter and text messaging, while the world quickly got word of the protests through the internet. The death of one protester, Neda Agha-Soltan, was captured on video, and she quickly became a rallying point for the protesters. Most of the protests had stopped by mid-August, but smaller protests occurred into After the wave of revolutions in the Arab world, more protests started, but were quickly put down. Between 36 and 72 people were killed, and many more injured in the violence.


88 On your Left Side, answer:
CARTOON 1: Is this cartoon in support of Ahmadinejad or Mousavi? What does the cartoon suggest about the government in Iran?


90 On your Left Side, answer:
Is this cartoon in support of Ahmadinejad or Mousavi? Who are the bearded men in black meant to symbolize? What is the skeletal remains of the horse meant to represent? What does the artist imply about the reform movement’s opinion of the United States?


92 On your Left Side, answer:
Is this cartoon in support of Ahmadinejad or Mousavi? What does the cartoon suggest about the role of the Supreme Leader in the election? Who or what is the “loser” according to the cartoon? What does this cartoon imply about democracy in Iran?


94 Game Theory

95 PINOCCHIAYATOLLAH Scott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05
An American view of Iranian nuclear power: What children’s story is this political cartoon playing off of? PINOCCHIAYATOLLAH Scott Stantis (Birmingham News) 1/28/05

96 A view of Iran’s nuclear power from Al-Jazeerah
Nobody else (particularly Iran and Arab countries) should have nuclear weapons except Israel, says Bush Hassan Bleybel 10/23/03

97 Iran’s Nuclear Program (Cont.)
There have been multiple rounds of negotiations between Iran and the so-called P5+1, which comprises the five permanent members of the UN Security Council - the US, UK, France, China, Russia - and Germany. For years they failed to make headway. But the mood changed after the election of Hassan Rouhani as president in June 2013. Five months later, following secret bilateral talks between the US and Iran, negotiators agreed an interim deal.

98 Summary of Treaty What Iran will do:
Halt enrichment of uranium above 5% purity "Neutralise" its stockpile of near-20%-enriched uranium Not install any more centrifuges (the machines used to enrich uranium)  What world powers will do: Not impose further nuclear-related sanctions Suspend certain sanctions on trade Transfer $4.2bn (£2.6bn) to Iran in installments from sales of its oil

99 Iran’s Nuclear Program (Cont.)
The deadline for the final agreement is November 24, 2014 The US and Iran have been having secret diplomatic correspondence trying to reach a permanent deal Iran has recently agreed to turn over its uranium to Russia Russia will convert it to fuel rods for power plants Makes the uranium useless for making a weapon If no deal is reached, Iran will be hit with a new round of heavy economic sanctions! All sides are publicly confident an agreement can be reached

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