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CENG 241 Digital Design 1 Lecture 11 Amirali Baniasadi

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1 CENG 241 Digital Design 1 Lecture 11 Amirali Baniasadi

2 2 This Lecture zChapter 6: Registers and Counters

3 3 Registers zSequential circuits are classified based in their function, e.g., registers. zRegister: A group of flip-flops each storing one bit of information. zRegisters include flip-flops and gates: flip-flops hold the information, gates control how the information is transferred to the register. zCounter is a register that goes through a predetermined sequence of states.

4 4 4-bit Register Loads in parallel Clear: Cleans the output to all 0’s.

5 5 Register with Parallel Load To fully synchronize the system clock signals should arrive at the same time at all flip-flops. Therefore we do not control the clock by gates. Load = 1, we load data Load =0, register content does not change 1 I0 I3 I2 I

6 6 Register with Parallel Load Load =0, register content does not change 0 A0 A3 A2 A

7 7 Shift Registers A register capable of shifting its binary information in one or both directions is called the shift register.

8 8 Serial Transfer A digital system is in the serial mode when information is processed one bit at a time. Serial transfer of information from A to B:

9 9 Remember 4-bit Parallel Adder Circuit?

10 10 Serial Addition Slower compared to parallel addition, but uses less equipment.

11 11 Serial Adder vs. Parallel Adder zPA uses registers with parallel load, SA uses shift registers. zPA uses more FAs compared to SA. zExcluding the registers, PA is a combinational circuit, SA is sequential.

12 12 Serial Adder: Design Procedure zState Table for a Serial Adder: zPresent State Inputs Next State Output Flip-Flop inputs z Q x y Q S J0 K0 z x z x z x z x z x 1 z x 0 z x 0 z x 0 zJ0=xy K0=x’y’= (x+y)’ S=x XOR y XOR z

13 13 Serial 4-bit Parallel Adder Circuit

14 14 Universal Shift Register zA register capable of shifting in both directions and loading in parallel. Multiplexer Inputs: 0: No Change 1:Shift Right 2:Shift Left 3:Parallel load Controls information transfer Stores Information

15 15 Ripple Counters zA register that goes trough a prescribed sequence of states is called a counter. zThere are two groups of counters: Ripple counters and Synchronous counters. zRipple counters: The flip-flop output triggers other flip-flops. zSynchronous counters count the clock.

16 16 Binary Ripple Counter zA binary ripple counter consists of a series of complementing flip-flops, with the output of each flip-flop connected to the next higher order. zExamples of complementing flip-flops are T and D (with the output complement connected to the input) flip-flop. zBinary Count Sequence zA3 A2 A1 A0 z A0 is complemented with each count pulse z A1 is complemented when A0 goes from 1 to 0 z A2 is complemented when A1 goes from 1 to 0 z A3 is complemented when A2 goes from 1 to 0 z z z z z

17 17 Examples of Binary Ripple Counters

18 18 Binary Ripple Counter zCount-down counter: A binary counter with reverse count: Starts from 15 goes down. zIn a count-down counter the least significant bit is complemented with every count pulse. Any other bit is complemented if the previous bit goes from 0 to 1. zWe can use the same counter design with negative edge flip-flops to make a count-down flip-flop.

19 19 BCD Ripple Counter A BCD counter starts from 0 ends at 9.

20 20 Logic Diagram of BCD Ripple Counter Q1 is applied to the C inputs of Q2 and Q8 Q2 is applied to the C input of Q4 J and K are connected to either 1 or flip-flop outputs

21 21 Logic Diagram of BCD Ripple Counter Verification: Does the circuit follow the states? Q1 is complemented with every count (J=K=1) Q2 complements if Q1 goes from 1 to 0 and Q8 is 0 Q2 remains 0 if Q8 becomes 1 Q4 complements if Q2 goes from 1 to 0 Q8 remains 0 as long as Q2 or Q4 is 0 When Q2 and Q4 are 1, Q8 complements when Q1 goes from 1 to 0. Q8 clears and the next Q1 transition.

22 22 Three-Decade Decimal BCD Counter Counts from 0 to 999: When Q8 goes from 1 to 0 the next higher order decade is triggered

23 23 4-bit Synchronous Binary Counters A flip-flop is complemented if all lower bits are 1. A3 A2 A1 A

24 24 4-bit Up-Down Binary Counters In a down binary counter a) The least significant bit is always complemented b) a bit is complemented if all lower bits are 0. Change an up counter to a down counter: The AND gates should come from the complement outputs instead of the normal one Up = 1, Down =0: Circuit counts up since input comes from Normal output Up = 0, Down =1: Circuit counts down since input comes from Complemented output

25 25 Binary Counter with Parallel Load zSometimes we need an initial value prior to the count operation. zInitial value: I3 I2 I1 I0

26 26 Binary Counter with Parallel Load Count = 1, Load =

27 27 Binary Counter with Parallel Load Count = 0, Load = I I3’ I0’ 0 I1 I1’ I2 I2’ I3 I1

28 28 BCD counter with parallel load In part a, 1001 is detected. In part b, 1010 is detected. In part a, LOAD is set to 1 and effective next cycle. In part b, counter is immediately cleared

29 29 Other Counters: Counters with unused states Present State Next State Flip-Flop Inputs A B C A B C JA KA JB KB JC KC X 0 X 1 X X 1 X X X X 1 0 X X 0 0 X 1 X X 0 1 X X X 1 X 1 0 X JA=KA=B JB=C, KB=1 JC=B’ KC=1

30 30 Other Counters: Counters with unused states What happens if we fall in unused states? In this case, 111 results in results in 100. The Counter is self-correcting.

31 31 Other Counters: Ring Counter A ring counter is a counter with ONLY 1 flip-flop set to 1 at any particular time, all other are cleared.

32 32 Other Counters: Johnson Counter A 4 flip-flop ring counter that produces 8 states (not 4).

33 33 Summary zCounters & Registers zReading up to page 269 zHomework 5-Chapter 6 problems 6,7,11,15,18,19,23,29 and 30 Due Wednesday July 30th.


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