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Section Q – Protein synthesis

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1 Section Q – Protein synthesis

2 Contents Q1 Aspects of protein synthesis
Codon-anticodon interaction, Wobble, Ribosome binding site, Polysomes, Initiator tRNA Q2 Mechanism of protein synthesis Overview, Initiation, Elongation, Termination Q3 Initiation in eukaryotes Overview, Scanning, Initiation, Elongation, Termination Q4 Translational control and post-translational events Translational control, Polyproteins, Protein targeting, Protein modification, Protein degration

3 Q1 Aspects of protein synthesis — Codon-anticodon interaction
In the cleft of the ribosome, an anti-parallel formation of three base pairs occurs between the codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA.

4 Some highly purified tRNA molecules were found to interact with more than one codon, and this ability is correlated with the presence of modified nucleosides in the 5’-anticodon position, particularly inosine (formed by post-transcriptional processing of adenosine by anticodon deaminase)


6 Q1 Aspects of protein synthesis — Wobble
To explain the redundancy of the genetic code. 18 aa are encoded by more than one triplet codons which usually differ at 5’-anticodin base 5'-anticodon base is able to undergo more movement than the other two bases and can thus form non-standard base pairs as long as the distances between the ribose units are close to normal.

7 All possible base pairings at the wobble position
No purine-purine or pyrimidine-pyrimidine base pairs are allowed as ribose distances would be incorrect (Neat!). U is not found as 5’-anticodon base

8 Wobble pairing: non Waston-crick base paring


10 Q1 Aspects of protein synthesis — Ribosome binding site
Solely for prokaryotic translation A purine-rich sequence usually containing all or part of the sequence 5'-AGGAGGU-3' Upstream of the initiation codon in prokaryotic mRNA To position the ribosome for initiation of protein synthesis

11 Shine-Delgarno element

12 Q1 Aspects of protein synthesis — Polysomes
Each mRNA transcript is read simultaneously by more than one ribosome.  A second, third, fourth, etc. ribosome starts to read the mRNA transcript before the first ribosome has completed the synthesis of one polypeptide chain. Multiple ribosomes on a single mRNA transcript are called polyribosomes or polysomes.  Multiple ribosomes can not be positioned closer than 80 nt.

13 Polysomes

14 Electron micrographs of ribosomes actively engaged in protein synthesis revealed by "beads on a string" appearance. 

15 Q1 Aspects of protein synthesis — Initiator tRNA
Methionine is the first amino acids incorporated into a protein chain in both prokaryotes (modified to N-formylmethionine) and eukaryotes. Initiator tRNAs are special tRNAs recognizing the AUG (GUG) start codons in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Initiator tRNAs differ from the one that inserts internal Met residues.

16 Initiator tRNA, fMet-tRNAfMet in E. coli
Lacking alkylated A endorses more flexibility in recognition in base pairing (both AUG and GUG).

17 Initiator tRNA formation in E. coli
Both initiator tRNA and noninitiator tRNAmet are charged with Met by the same methionyl-tRNA synthetase to give the methionyl-tRNA Only the initiator methionyl-tRNA is modified by transformylase to give N-formylmethionyl-tRNAfmet.


19 Q2 Mechanism of protein synthesis — Overview
Protein synthesis falls into three stages . Initiation – the assemble of a ribosome on an mRNA. Elongation – repeated cycle of amino acid delivery, peptide bond formation and movement along the mRNA (translocation); Termination – the release of the polypeptide chain.

20 Q2 Mechanism of protein synthesis — Initiation
In prokaryotes, initiation requires the large and small ribosome subunits, the mRNA the initiator tRNA three initiation factors .

21 Size comparisons show that the ribosome is large enough to bind tRNAs and mRNA.

22 IF1 and IF3 bind to a free 30S subunits.
IF2 complexed with GTP then bind to the small subunits, forming a complex at RBS. The initiator tRNA can then bind to the complex at the P site paired with AUG codon. 30S initiation complex The 50S subunits can now bind. GTP is then hydrolyzed and IFs are released to give the 70S initiation complex

23 The assembled ribosome has two tRNA-binding sites, which are called A- and P-site, for aminoacyl and peptidyl sites respectively. Only fMet-tRNAfMet can be used for initiation by 30S subunits; all other aminoacyl-tRNAs are used for elongation by 70S ribosomes.

24 Q2 Mechanism of protein synthesis — Elongation
With the formation of the 70S initiation complex, the elongation cycle can begin. Elongation involves the three factors, EF-Tu, EF-Ts, EF-G, as well as GTP, charged tRNA and the 70S initiation complex.

25 The three steps of elongation
1.Charged tRNA is delivered as a complex with EF-Tu and GTP . 2.Peptidyl tranferase (50S ribosomal subunit) makes a peptide bond by joining the two adjacent amino acid without the input of more energy. 3.Translocase (EF-G), with the energy from GTP, moves the ribosome one codon along the mRNA, ejecting the uncharged tRNA and transferred the ribosome peptide from the mRNA.

26 EF-Tu-Ts exchange cycle

27 Peptide bond formation takes place by reaction between the polypeptide of peptidyl-tRNA in the P site and the amino acid of aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site.

28 Q2 Mechanism of protein synthesis — Termination
Protein factors called release factors interact with stop codon and cause release of completed polypeptide chain. RF1 and RF2 recognizes the stop codon with the help of RF3 The release factors make peptidyl transferase transfer the polypeptide to water, and thus the protein is released Release factors and EF-G: remove the uncharged tRNA and release the mRNA,.

29 Q3 Initiation in eukaryotes — Overview
Most of the differences in the mechanism of protein between prokaryotes and eukaryotes occur in the initiation stage, where a greater numbers of eIFs and a scanning process are involed in eukaryotes. The eukaryotic initiator tRNA does not become N-formylated.

30 prokaryotic eukaryotic function Initiation factor IF1 IF3 IF2 eIF3 eIF4c eIF6 eIF4B eIF4F eIF2B eIF2 eIF5 Bind to ribosome submits Bind to mRNA Initiator tRNA delivery Displacement of other factors Elongation factor EF-Tu EF-Ts EF-g eEF1α eEF1βγ eEF2 Aminoacyl tRNA delivery Recycling of EF-Tu or eEF1α Translocation Termination factors RF1, RF2, RF3 eRF Polypeptides Chain release

31 Q3 Initiation in eukaryotes — Scanning
The eukaryotic 40s ribosome submit complex bind to the 5’cap region of the mRNA and moves along it scanning for an AUG start codon.

32 Eukaryotic ribosomes migrate from the 5’ end of mRNA to the ribosome binding site, which includes an AUG initiation codon.

33 Q3 Initiation in eukaryotes — Initiation
In contrast to the events in prokaryotes, initiation involves the initiation tRNA binding to the 40S subuits before it can bind to the mRNA. Phosphorylation of eIf2, which delivers the initiation tRNA, is an important control point.

34 + Initiator tRNA+eIF2+GTP eIF3+4C+40S Ternary complex
43S ribosome complex 43S preinitiation complex ATP +mRNA+eIF4F+eIF4B ADP+Pi 48S preinitiation complex

35 Scanning More factors involved

36 Scanning to find AUG

37 Q3 Initiation in eukaryotes — Elongation
The protein synthesis elongation cycle in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is quite similar. The factors EF-Tu EF-Ts EF-G have direct eukaryotic equivalents called eEF1α eEF1βγ eEF2

38 Q3 Initiation in eukaryotes — Termination
Eukaryotes use only one release factors eRF, which requires GTP,recognize all three termination codons. Termination codon is one of three (UAG, UAA, UGA) that causes protein synthesis to terminate.

39 (a) the binding of short antisense molecules,
Q4 Translational control and post-translational events — Translational control In prokaryotes, the level of translation of different cistrons can be affected by: (a) the binding of short antisense molecules, (b) the relative stability to nucleases of parts of the polycistronic mRNA , (c) the binding of proteins that prevent ribosome access.

40 In eukaryotes, protein binding can also mask the mRNA and prevent translation, repeats of the sequence 5'-AUUUA -3' can make the mRNA unstable and less frequently translated.

41 Q4 Translational control and post-translational events — Polyproteins
A single translation product that is cleaved to generate two or more separate proteins is called a polyprotein. Many viruses produce polyprotein.

42 Q4 Translational control and post-translational events — Protein targeting
The ultimate cellular location of proteins is often determined by specific, relatively short amino acid sequence within the proteins themselves. These sequences can be responsible for proteins being secreted, imported into the nucleus or targeted to other organelles.


44 Prokaryotic protein targeting: secretion

45 Eukaryotic protein targeting
Targeting in eukaryotes is necessarily more complex due to the multitude of internal compartments: There are two basic forms of targeting pathways 2. 1.


47 The secretory pathway in eukaryotes (co-translational targeting)

48 The signal sequence of secreted proteins causes the translating ribosome to bind factors that make the ribosome dock with a membrane and transfer the protein through the membrane as it is synthesized. Usually the signal sequence is then cleaved off by signal peptidase.

49 Q4 Translational control and post-translational events — Protein modification
Cleavage: To remove signal peptide To release mature fragments from polyproteins To remove internal peptide as well as trimming both N-and C-termini

50 Q4 Translational control and post-translational events — Protein degration
Different proteins have very different half-lives. Regulatory proteins tend to turn over rapidly and cells must be able to dispose of faulty and damaged proteins.

51 Protein degradation: process
Faulty and damaged proteins are attached to ubiquitins (ubiquitinylation). The ubiquitinylated protein is digested by a 26S protease complex (proteasome) in a reaction that requires ATP and releases intact ubiquitin for re-use.

52 In eukaryotes, it has been discovered that the N-terminal residue plays a critical role in inherent stability. 8 N-terminal aa correlate with stability: Ala Cys Gly Met Pro Ser Thr Val 8 N-terminal aa correlate with short t1/2: Arg His Ile Leu Lys Phe Trp Tyr 4 N-terminal aa destabilizing following chemical modification: Asn Asp Gln Glu

53 Multiple choice questions
1. Which statement about the codon-anticodon interaction is false? A it is antiparallel and can include nonstandard base pairs. B inosine in the 5' -anticodon position can pair with A, C or U in the 3'-codon position C inosine in the 3’-anticodon position can pair with A, C or U in the 5’-codon position. D A is never found in the 5'-anticodon position as it is modified by anticodon deaminase. 2. Which one of the following statements correctly describes initiation of protein synthesis in E. coli? A the initiator tRNA binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. B three initiation factors are involved and IF2 binds to GTP. C the intermediate containing IF1, IF2, IF3, initiator tRNA and mRNA is called the 30S initiation complex. D binding of the 50S subunit releases IF1, IF2, GMP and PPi. E the initiation process is complete when the 70S initiation complex is formed which contains the initiator tRNA in the A site of the ribosome and an empty P site.

54 D EF-G is also known as translocase and uses GTP in its reaction.
3. Which statement about elongation of protein synthesis in prokaryotes is false? A elongation can be divided into three steps: peptidyl-tRNA delivery peptide bond formation and translocation. B the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit is responsible for peptide bond for­mation. C in the EF-Tu-Ts exchange cycle EF-Tu-GTP is regenerated by EF-Ts displacing GDP. D EF-G is also known as translocase and uses GTP in its reaction. 4. E. coli release factor 1 (RF1) recognizes which codons? A UAA only. B UAG only. C UGA only. D UGA and UAA. E UAG and UAA. F UAG and UGA.

55 5. Which two of the following statements about initiation of eukaryotic protein synthesis are true?
A eukaryotes use a mRNA scanning method to locate the correct start codon. B there are at least nine eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). C eukaryotic initiation uses N-formylmethionine. D the 80S initiation complex completes the initiation process and contains the initiator tRNA base­paired to the start codon in the A site. E ATP is hydrolysed to AMP and PPi during the scanning process. F the initiator tRNA binds after the mRNA has bound to the small subunit. 6. Which of the following protein synthesis factors are not equivalent pairs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes? A EF-G; eEF2. B EF-Tu; eEF1α. C RF1 and RF3; eRF. D EF-Ts; eEFαβ

56 7. Which statement about post-translational events is false?
A some mRNAs encode polyproteins. B protein targeting involves signal sequences in the nascent polypeptides. C signal peptidase removes one or two amino acids from the amino terminus of some proteins. D proteins can be modified by acetylation phosphorylation and glycosylation.


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