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Surveillance in Europe: status and plans

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Presentation on theme: "Surveillance in Europe: status and plans"— Presentation transcript:

1 Surveillance in Europe: status and plans
MAKS 2013, Moscow 29th August 2013 Johan Martensson Network Manager Directorate, EUROCONTROL

2 Deployment & Regulations Performance Analysis Next steps
Agenda 1 Introduction 2 Deployment & Regulations 3 Performance Analysis 4 Next steps

3 ADS-B/WAM Deployment – CASCADE
Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) Ground Surveillance Applications (ADS-B Out) ADS-B Receiver Enhanced ATS in Non-Radar areas (NRA) Enhanced ATS in Radar areas (RAD) Airport Surface Surveillance (APT) Aircraft derived data (ADD) 2010 IOC Airborne Surveillance Applications (ADS-B In ATSAW) 2011 IOC Enhanced TSA during Flight operations (AIRB) In Trail Procedure (ITP) Visual separation on approach (VSA) Enhanced TSA for Surface operations (SURF) Interval Management (FIM - ADS-B In Spacing) ATS – Air Traffic Services TSA – Traffic Situation Awareness

4 Global interoperability
More than a decade of intensive international co-operation ANSPs/Airspace Users/Industry/Regulators Common Standards for Operations and Systems Completed for ADS-B Out ADS-B In: Traffic Situation Awareness in the cockpit Ongoing for ADS-B In: Spacing, Separation, Alerting Aligned Certification material Civil-Military interoperability Reduction of exemptions for State aircraft Provisions for military in SES Regulations Rationalisation of CNS infrastructure Exchange of functional performance assessment results Guidance to implementers Great contribution to global interoperability and cost-efficiency

5 Deployment & Regulations Performance Analysis Next steps
Agenda 1 Introduction 2 Deployment & Regulations 3 Performance Analysis 4 Next steps

6 ADS-B and WAM Deployment in Europe
ADS-B IN Voluntary implementation in wider areas New equipage Pioneer Phase Avionics: EASA AMC20-24 and later EASA CS-ACNS ADS-B OUT 2017 2015 Voluntary implementation in pocket areas Certified existing equipage IR based implementation in wider areas Upgraded equipage Forward-fit Retro-fit Pioneer Phase Mandate Phase Avionics: EASA AMC20-24 Avionics: EASA CS-ACNS EU Regulation 1207/2011 2019 State a/c WAM WAM / ADS-B Ground system Deployment

7 ADS-B Out and Mode S Mandate
Regulation (EU) 1207/2011 European Commission Single European Sky Surveillance Performance & Interoperability Implementing Rule (SPI IR) All aircraft flying IFR/GAT Mode S ELS Aircraft flying IFR/GAT >5700 kg or >250kts TAS ADS-B Out & Mode S EHS Option for ADS-B specific airspace mandate Mandate dates Forward fit 8 Jan 2015 Retrofit 7 Dec 2017 Provisions for State a/c (Article 8) 7 Dec 2017 (Mode S ELS) 1 Jan 2019 (Mode S EHS and ADS-B for transport-type aircraft) 7 7

8 Mode S radar Deployment
322 Mode S radars 12 new applications (not included)

9 ADS-B & WAM Deployment Austria Bulgaria Czech Republic Cyprus Denmark
Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Italy Latvia Netherlands Norway Portugal Romania Spain Sweden UK ADS-B & WAM Deployment Legend ADS-B current equipage ADS-B updated avionics WAM with ADS-B capabilities ADS-B and WAM Opportunities Dates System Deployment D = Deployed 9

10 Estimated ADS-B & WAM sensors & systems

11 Aircraft readiness for ADS-B Out operations
Two certification baselines: AMC 20-24 Legacy ADS-B Out installations are generally compliant to AMC20-24 Several configurations are Certified Currently used in Operations Short term implementation in lower density airspace CS-ACNS – compliance means for EU Regulation 1207/2011 Avionics upgrade required (currently limited availability) Support high density surveillance Recommended (future) implementation baseline

12 EU IR 1207/2011 (CS-ACNS) Key ADS-B Avionics Requirements
(E)TSO-C145/146 (DO229D) (E)TSO-C196 (DO316) (E)TSO-C129a (DO208) GNSS (E)TSO-C166b (ED102A/DO260B) (E)TSO-C112d (ED73E/DO181E) Transponder System Integrity: 10-5/fh System Continuity: 5000fh MTBF* Stringent Latency requirements Additional GPS receiver qualification required (beyond ETSO level) Same data sources as for SSR Device & function failure indications Air/ground status determination Geo Alt: only height-above-ellipsoid Antenna diversity, transmit power – same as for Mode S * CS-ACNS NPA suggesting “remote” discussion on-going Total Latency: < 1.5s Uncomp. Latency: < 0.6s

13 ADS-B Out Regulations in Europe and USA High-level comparison
Europe 1207/2011(Draft CS-ACNS) ≈ US 14 CFR (AC20-165A) 1207/2011 91.227 Applicability Aircraft related Airspace related ADS-B Out Protocol Identical (ED-102A / DO-260B, 1090ES v2) allows for UAT below ft Antenna Diversity Required Required, bottom-mounted allowed for A1S,B1S Position source ETSO-C129a/196/145/ additional requirements NIC=7(0.2NM), NACp=8(0.05NM), NACv=1(10m/s), SIL=3, SDA=2 ETSO-C129()/196/145/146* + additional requirements * In practice, higher end receivers (145/146) will likely be required to meet the US rule with satisfactory availability Data items Same baseline + Vertical rate, GPS antenna offset, Selected Altitude, Barometric Pressure Setting Same baseline + ADS-B In Capability

14 ADS-B IN 5000+ ATSAW flights Pioneer operators
First ATSAW certified aircraft delivered June 2011 First ATSAW Operations by Swiss 7 Feb 2012 5000+ flights performed so far Pioneer operators Aircraft Type ADS-B IN installation type Number of Aircraft B767 EFB Class 3 3 A330 Integrated display system 16 5 Total 24 Other operators are ordering ADS-B In for new a/c 14

15 Deployment & Regulations Performance Analysis Next steps
Agenda 1 Introduction 2 Deployment & Regulations 3 Performance Analysis 4 Next steps

16 Surveillance Evolution & Consequences
Surveillance functions are moving to the aircraft Cooperative surveillance: Mode A/C >> Mode S >> ADS-B More information is provided by the airborne sub-system Surveillance performance is more dependent on the airborne sub-system Airborne surveillance sub-system is becoming more complex More functions Increasing number of interfaces with avionics  Increasing need for air-ground & air-air interoperability  Increasing need for inter-avionics equipment interoperability

17 Performance Monitoring
13300 ADS-B aircraft in the Database 19 billion ADS-B reports Continuous monitoring International co-ordination

18 Deployment & Regulations Performance Analysis Next steps
Agenda 1 Introduction 2 Deployment & Regulations 3 Performance Analysis 4 Next steps

19 Ground Surveillance Technical specifications
Composite ADS-B and WAM surveillance system specification Surveillance services from a single equipment network architecture New system specification for combined systems (ED-nnn) Updated ADS-B & WAM system specifications (ED-129 & ED-142) Generic Surveillance (GEN-SUR) - SPR & PSC Guidance to address safety requirements in EC Regulation 1207/2011 – Safety assessment for all Surveillance systems Combining surveillance techniques (ADS-B, Radar, WAM) at functional a level

20 Ground Surveillance Satellite based ADS-B
Global coverage of ADS-B Out excluding higher density areas Several studies One consortium (Aireon) with firm deployment plans Objective to support NM Separation 66 LEO satellites (Iridium NEXT) First launch 2015 / Full constellation 2017 ATM Impact – key areas Network Improvement Business Case Interoperability Global coordination will be required

21 ADS-B Out expansion beyond Air Transport
Proposal to increase the scope of EU Regulation 1207/2011 No change to existing requirements or dates ! Objective to cover all aircraft subject to surveillance Maximise Surveillance infrastructure rationalisation Mitigate airspace infringements and prevent misleading data Low cost ADS-B Out [GNSS & Transponder] Two initiatives: LPSE – Low Power Surveillance Equipment (FAA) LPAT – Low Power ADS-B Transceiver (UK) Voluntary equipage Target low end airspace users, visible for Situation Awareness but not for ATC separation services

22 ABS-B IN Next steps Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM)
Speed guidance to achieve precise interval spacing between aircraft Step 1: MOPS & SPR target end 2014 Step 2: tbd Traffic Situation Awareness with Alerts (TSAA) ADS-B based collision avoidance system for aircraft without ACAS II At the “traffic advisory” level, i.e. no coordination or resolution advisories MOPS & SPR target end 2013 CDTI Assisted Visual Separation on Approach (CAVS) After initial visual contact - allow Own Visual Separation where the Display replaces visual contact

23 Other Surveillance related Developments
Flight plan indications for ADS-B Proposal to introduce means to indicate specific ADS-B Out and ADS-B In capabilities in the ICAO flight plan FPL 2012 indications as baseline Expanding through the SUR/ indicator in Item 18 ACAS improvements Hybrid ACAS – reduced RF though passive use of ADS-B ACAS X – Improved ACAS, backwards compatible, with application adjusted logic Improved data link for Surveillance 1090 MHz increased bandwidth through phase modulation Future data link studies

24 Rationalised High Performance Surveillance system
Conclusions Surveillance standards and Regulations published Airborne & Ground Deployment ongoing Rationalised High Performance Surveillance system Global Interoperability New Application Development ongoing

25 Questions

26 SES Surveillance Regulations overview
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Airborne Surveillance – ADS-B In Voluntary benefit driven implementation Airborne Safety net – ACAS II v7.1 – IR driven EC IR 1332/2011 ICAO Forward-fit v7.1 EUR Forward-fit v7.1 EUR Retro-fit v7.1 Air / Ground Interface – Mode S & ADS-B Out – IR driven Aircraft operators Service providers Forward-fit ELS / EHS / ADS-B Retro-fit ELS / EHS / ADS-B Mil. a/c ELS Mil.Trp.a/c EHS / ADS-B EC IR 1207/2011 NPA > CS-ACNS EC IR 1206/2011 Systems ready for Aircraft ID as identification means Ground Surveillance – ADS-B Out / Mode S / WAM Most appropriate & efficient surveillance solution for the particular environment

27 SES Surveillance Regulations Applicability
EU IR 1207/2011 – Mode S & ADS-B Out (v2) All IFR/GAT aircraft Mode S ELS IFR/GAT aircraft >5700kg or >250kts TAS ADS-B Out Fixed wing IFR/GAT aircraft >5700kg or >250kts TAS Mode S EHS ANSPs Most efficient solution Possibility for local mandates EU IR 1332/2011 – ACAS II v7.1 Turbine-powered aeroplanes > 5 700 kg or > 19 passengers ACAS II v7.1 Also applies to aircraft which will be equipped on a voluntary basis Does not apply to unmanned aircraft systems Timeline ADS-B/ELS/EHS Rtr + ELS Mil. a/c 7 dec 2017 ADS-B/ELS/EHS Fwd 8 Jan 2015 ADS-B/EHS Mil. Trp. a/c 1 Jan 2019 Regional Mode S mandates TCAS v7.1 Fwd 1 Mar 2012 TCAS v7.1 Rtr 1 Dec 2015 Ground systems ACID ready 2 Jan 2020 (EU IR 1206/2011) Earlier 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Later

28 ICAO Documents ADS-B Out
Annex 10 Volume IV (Current Amdt 85, next version: v2 ES 1207/2011) Mode S Services on ES (Doc 9871 ed2, 2012) ADS-B In [AIRB, ITP, SURF, VSA] + [IM, CAVS, CAPP, TSAA] +… PANS-OPS (Doc 8168) to include A/C Operating Procedures Airborne Surveillance Manual (Draft Doc 9994, ASTAF) ITP (SASP and ASTAF) PANS-ATM (Doc 4444) ITP Circular (Draft) Mode S & ACAS II Annex 10 Volume III & IV ACAS Manual (Doc 9863 ed2, 2012) SASP - Separation and Airspace Safety Panel ASTAF - Airborne Surveillance Task Force

29 Regional Regulatory Documents
Equipment certification: ADS-B Out ETSO-C166b (Jul 2012)* + ETSO-C129a / ETSO-C145c/146c / ETSO-196a ADS-B In ETSO-C195a (Jul 2012), TCAS hybrid sur. ETSO-C119c (Dec 2009) ACAS II ETSO-C119c (Dec 2009) Mode S ETSO-C112d (to be issued) Airworthiness Approval ADS-B Out: CS-ACNS (NPA , expected Q2 2013) (AC20-165A (Nov 2012)) ADS-B In: CRI (Certification Review Item), Tbd EASA Certification Memo (AC20-172A (Mar 2012)) Mode S & CS-ACNS (NPA , expected Q2 2013), JAA TGL13 Rev1 (June 2003), ACAS II AMC20-13 (Dec 2006) (AC20-131A, AC20-151A)

30 ADS-B Out Required Data items
Parameter 1207/2011(Draft CS-ACNS) AMC 20-24 § (AC20-165A) ICAO 24 bit address Mandatory Aircraft identification Mode A code (incl. disabling function) Special position indication (SPI or IDENT) Emergency status (incl. emgy indication) Mandatory* Barometric Pressure altitude (incl NICbaro) ADS-B version number Mandatory, ≥ 2 Horizontal position (incl. NIC, NACp, SDA & SIL) Horizontal Velocity (E/W,N/S & Hdg/Trk gnd, HRD, NACv) Recommended Geometric Altitude (HAE) (incl. GVA) - ADS-B Emitter category Aircraft length and width GNSS antenna offset Vertical rate (Hybrid, Baro, Baro-inertial or GNSS) Selected Altitude (MCP/FCU incl status) If available Optional Selected Heading Barometric pressure setting ACAS traffic status (incl. RA active (TCAS II) etc) If TCAS II installed ACAS installed & operating RA capable (TCAS II) ADS-B In capability installed If installed

31 Mode S Required Data items
Parameter ELS 1207/2011 (Draft CS-ACNS) EHS ICAO 24 bit address Mandatory Aircraft identification Mode A code Special position indication (SPI or IDENT) Emergency status (incl. Mode A codes) Barometric Pressure altitude Level 2 SI Code capable Flight Status (Air/Gnd) Data link capability report (ACAS, Mode S, ES, SI,…) ACAS traffic status (incl. RA active (TCAS II) etc) If TCAS II installed Horizontal Velocity (Ground speed) - Vertical rate Selected Altitude (MCP/FCU incl status) Barometric pressure setting Roll Angle True Track Angle Indicated Airspeed (IAS) or Mach Magnetic Heading Track Angle Rate (or true airspeed if “TAR” not available)

32 Typical ADS-B/WAM Benefit cases Non-Radar Airspace
TMA around secondary airports with increasing traffic (e.g. low-cost carriers) No Surveillance coverage Reduced efficiency (sub-optimal routing, holdings etc.) -> estimate 2-3 mins per a/c -> enabling of PBN (Kos/Greece as a pilot case) If there are predominant carriers, current ADS-B technology could be used If there is mixed fleet, WAM could be an alternative (typically higher cost than ADS-B as it includes multiple stations but still lower than radar)

33 Typical ADS-B/WAM Benefit cases Radar Airspace
Future Radar decommissioning Cost avoidance (ADS-B/WAM cost is significantly lower) Assessed with UK NATS (Mode S radar replacement) WAM can be used now ADS-B requires the SPI IR functionality (dates ) Clause for ANSP efficiency IR 1207/2011 extension? Incentives (e.g. low-end)?

34 Surveillance Technology
ACAS X User Group Surveillance Technology Advisories ACAS XA Current TCAS II users (large aircraft) Active radar supplemented with passive Same as current TCAS II ACAS XO Users of specific operations (e.g., CSPO, Formation Flights, ASAS Operations) Procedure-specific alerts for selected aircraft, global alerting against all others ACAS XP General aviation Passive only Reduced advisory set ACAS XU Unmanned aircraft Potentially radar, EO/IR, etc. Vertical and horizontal advisories

35 EC Implementing Rule Exemptions and Incentives
Regulation (EU) 1207/2011 European Commission Single European Sky Surveillance Performance & Interoperability Implementing Rule (SPI IR) Exemption provisions: Mode S EHS only (specific architectures) Basic Regulation (EU) 216/2008 Generic exemption provisions: Article 14 para 4 and 5 INCENTIVES: At this stage not anticipated for AOC holders 35 35

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