2Sequence of Tenses with the Subjunctive Main ClausePresentFuturePresent PerfectFuture PerfectCommandPreteriteImperfectConditionalPluperfectConditional PerfectDependent ClausePresent SubjunctiveorPresent Perfect SubjunctiveImperfect SubjunctivePluperfect Subjunctive
3Sequence of TensesThe chart shows the uses of tenses in main and dependent clauses, however there are times when the main clause verb is in the present, the imperfect subjunctive may be used in the dependent clause to refer to an action that has already occurred (siento que no pudieras jugar al tenis = I’m sorry that you were not able to play tennis)
4Uses of Definite Articles (el, la, los, las) Before nouns or normalized adjectives used in a general sense, as well as with nouns dealing with concepts and abstractions (Los toreros tienen que ser valientes)With days of the week (except after ser), seasons, meals, hours, and datesWith the names of languages (except after hablar and verbs of learning) or prepositions de or en
5Uses of Definite Articles (el, la, los, las) With titles (except when speaking directly to the person or before don, doña, fray, sor, san(to), santa)Before certain geographical names (although often omitted in the press and in colloquial speech)With clothing and body parts when ownership is established by the subject (Levanten la mano si saben la repuesta)
6Uses of Indefinite Articles (un, una, unos, unas) Before a noun that has not been identified previously (hubo un president que era aficionado a las canicas)Before a noun that is modified (Los mayas tuvieronuna civilización impresionante)
7Infinite ArticlesThe infinite article is omitted in the following situations:After the verb ser when referring to an unmodified noun that indentifies professions, occupations, nationalities, ranks, and affiliations (Ella es profesora de italiano)Before cien, ciento, mil, and cierto/aAfter medio/a, tal, and ¡qué…!
8Uses of Gerund and the Infinitive As a nounEnglish: gerundWatching a soccer game can be exitingNo smokingAs an adjectiveIt was an entertaining contestBingo is a thrilling game of chanceAs an adverbWe did the tour walkingShe answered the question smilingSpanish: infinitiveMirar un partido de futból puede se emocionanteNo fumarSpanish: adjectiveFue in certamen entretenidoEl bingo es un juego de azar emocionanteSpanish: gerundHicimos la gira caminandoContestaba la pregunta sonriendo