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Use of Flare Gases To Generate Electricity from Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Use of Flare Gases To Generate Electricity from Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Use of Flare Gases To Generate Electricity from Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 1

2 Flare Gases & Reduction Milestones  Over 150 billion m³ of gas are being flared & vented annually  The gas flared annually equals 30 % of the European Union’s gas consumption, or 75 % of Russia’s gas exports  KSA Flares 2 billion m³/year equivelant to 16 Giga Kw using Fuel Cells  World Bank will ask Oil Cos. to Stop Flaring Gas by 2030  World Bank is leading 33 Nations & Cos. in Global Gas Flare Reduction Partnership to shrink Flaring by 30 % by 2017Global Gas Flare Reduction Source : World Bank Data Source : World Bank : Eduard Gismatullin Jun 18, 2014 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 2

3 Extracts from IPCC Report 2. Future Climate Changes, Risks and Impacts Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and long- lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems. Limiting climate change would require substantial and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions which, together with adaptation, can limit climate change. 2.1 Key drivers of future climate Cumulative emissions of CO2 largely determine global mean surface warming by the late 21st century and beyond. Projections of greenhouse gas emissions vary over a wide range, depending on both socioeconomic development and climate policy. Source : IPCC : http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_SPM.pdf http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_SPM.pdf 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 3

4 o High Electrical Efficiency > 60% (20-38% for Steam Turbines) o Stable Efficiency under Partial-Load Operation o Low CO2-emmissions ( Measured as x/KwHr of Electricty Produced ) o No Moving Parts (Low Maintenance) which is important for remote installations o Low Noise Emmission ( < 60 db. ) o Modular Assembly Enabling Upscaling from KW to MW-units Why Fuel Cells and not e.g. Steam Turbines? http://www.localpower.org/deb_tech_st.html 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 4

5 Why SOFC for flare gas electrification? SOFC is the most efficient technology available to convert methane rich gases into electricity the long term cost potential of the technology is below 1500€/kW and hence competitive to conventioal solutions (gas engines & turbines) Due to the biogas boom in Europe low cost gas cleaning technology is available and could be easily adapted to flare gases SOFC should be more tolerant to heating value fluctuations than engines or turbines, as no combustion takes place and oxygen and fuel are always physically seperated 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 5

6 Onsite & decentral generation of electrical and heat and/or cooling Waste-heat recovery for heating, cooling, dehumidification, or process applications. Seamless system integration for a variety of technologies, thermal applications, and fuel types into existing infrastructure. What is C©HP 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 6

7 Benefits of CHP 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 7 Efficiency Benefits CHP requires less fuel to produce a given energy output, and avoids transmission and distribution losses that occur when electricity travels over power lines. Reliability Benefits CHP can be designed to provide high-quality electricity and thermal energy to a site regardless of what might occur on the power grid, decreasing the impact of outages and improving power quality for sensitive equipment. Environmental Benefits Because less fuel is burned to produce each unit of energy output, CHP reduces air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Economic Benefits CHP can save facilities considerable money on their energy bills due to its high efficiency and can provide a hedge against unstable energy costs.

8 Benchmark SOFC @ Bloom Energy 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 8 Bloom Energy product: Bloom Box 2.0 200kW, 60% electr. efficiency, Sales price <3000US$/kW for 10 year carefree about 100MW installed capacity Bloom Electrons, electr. energy@ lower price than grid (in selected locations)

9 How does it work ? 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 9 up to 60% electrical efficiency ~90% total efficiency Burner HEX ReformerReformer Compressor NGNG Air Anode Kode ath Desulf. Heat Cooling Electricity Compressor

10 Components required for a SOFC system 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 10 Disulphuriser Start-up burner (for combustion with preheated air) AirAir NGNG Exhaust Steam Reformer

11 SOFC Stack Module 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 11 Module 3 Module 4 Module 5  integration of single stacks to achieve desired output power  Key challenges: thermal integration & gas distribution

12 5-10kW System Demonstrator 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 12

13 Operating Results of System Demonstrator 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 13  dedicated 500hr test showed no degradation  >50% electrical efficiency achieved  electrical output power from 1kW to 6.5kW (sizeable)  in total: around 3.500hr test experience  Gen II tested (>55% efficiency)  Gen III under development (included absorbtion chiller for cooling)

14 Case Study SOFC Distributed Power Generation 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 14

15 Study Outline Based on existing 10 Kw CHP, the study will concentrate on; Flare Gase Chemical composition Gas Cleaning process Pre-reforming Adaptation to Local Environment 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 15

16 Bar Chart Representation Adapting Existing 5 - 10 Kw CHP Module 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 16 Q1Q2Q3Q4 Partner & Business Model Development Partner Defintion Business Plan Financing Plan Product Defintion Product Identification Product Specification Development CHP Platform Flare gas Adaptation Studies CHP Demoproject

17 Roadmap for large-scale SOFC Products 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 17

18 Development Phases of Large SOFC Generators Detailed Product Specs Application Development Field Tests Production Planning Supply Chain Development Product Certification Stack Assembly Line Build-up System Assembly Line Build-up 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 18

19 Bar Chart for Development – 100 Kw CHP 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 19 Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4Q1Q2Q3Q4 CHP 100 kW Product Detailed Product Specifications Upscale Development Field Tests Production Planning Supply Chain Development Product Certification Stack Assembly Line Build-up System Assembly Line Build-up

20 The consortia offers Access (Know-How and IPR) to advanced SOFC power generation technology from powder to turn-key systems openess for technology transfer to Saudi Arabia flexibility in business models for local Saudi value creation (e.g. local license manufacturing of end-products) >20 years of experience >100 specific SOFC projects with leading international energy solution providers local representation by Zaff Hi-Tech 04/12/2014 RCJY Jubail Zaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 20

21 Thank You for Attending Zaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA AVL / Graz Austria Plansee / Ruette Austria Fraunhofer Research Institute / Dresden Germany ATNS / Roma Italy 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 21

22 AVL AVL is the world's largest independent company for development, simulation and testing technology of powertrains (hybrid, combustion engines, transmission, electric drive, batteries, fuel cells and software) for passenger cars, trucks and stationary power generation. AVL has 7200 employees worldwide and a turnover of 1.015 Mio€ (2012). Fraunhofer Fraunhofer Society ; Largest Applied Research Centre in Germany; Staff 20 000; Budget 2 Billion€ Plansee Established 1921 & still privately owned; in 2012/2013, 1.2 Billion € Sales ; 29 Mn € R&D; 5700 Employees,. The Plansee Group aims to be the world’s leading and preferred supplier of high-technology materials. Since 20 Yrs active in SOFC Technology; World Leader in Powder Metallurgical components & technologies Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ATNS Consultants Senior Consultants Network operating in Telecoms & Advanced Technology Fields 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 22

23 Annex 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 23

24 Flared Gas World Wide Over 150 billion cubic meters (or 5,3 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas are being flared and vented annually. The gas flared annually is equivalent to 25 per cent of the United States’ gas consumption, 30 per cent of the European Union’s gas consumption, or 75 per cent of Russia’s gas exports. The gas flared yearly also represents more than the combined gas consumption of Central and South America. The annual 35 bcm (or 1,2 trillion cubic feet) of gas flared in Africa alone is equivalent to half of that continent’s power consumption. Flaring gas has a global impact on climate change by adding about 400 million tons of CO2 in annual emissions. Fewer than 20 countries account for more than 70 percent of gas flaring and venting. And just four countries together flare about 70 billion cubic meters of associated gas. http://go.worldbank.org/016TLXI7N0 Source : World Bank : 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 24

25 The Kingdome Flares +/- 2 Billion Nm³ / Year Equaling 16 000 MW / Year Using Fuel Cells Source : World Bank Data 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 25

26 Flaring Reduction Mile Stones 2017 & 2030 o World Bank Will Ask Oil Companies to Stop Flaring Gas by 2030  The World Bank will urge producers of oil to stop flaring natural gas by 2030, saying the amount of fuel wasted in the practice would generate enough power to meet all of Africa’s demand for electricityWorld BankAfrica  The World Bank is leading 33 companies and nations in the Global Gas Flaring Reduction partnership that seeks to shrink the industry custom by 30 % in the five years to 2017Global Gas Flaring Reduction  Halting the burning of about 140 billion cubic meters of gas globally every year would reduce carbon-dioxide emissions equivalent to taking about 70 million cars off the roads Source : World Bank : Eduard Gismatullin Jun 18, 2014 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 26

27 AR5 SYR SPM IPCC Report

28 Sources of emissions Energy production remains the primary driver of GHG emissions 35% 24% 21% 14% 6.4% 2010 GHG emissions Energy Sector Agriculture, forests and other land uses Industry Transport Building Sector AR5 WGIII SPM IPCC Report

29 The window for action is rapidly closing 65% of our carbon budget compatible with a 2°C goal already used Amount Used 1870-2011: 515 GtC Amount Remaining: 275 GtC Total Carbon Budget: 790 GtC AR5 WGI SPM IPCC Report

30 Limiting Temperature Increase to 2˚C Measures exist to achieve the substantial emissions reductions required to limit likely warming to 2°C A combination of adaptation and substantial, sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can limit climate change risks Implementing reductions in greenhouse gas emissions poses substantial technological, economic, social, and institutional challenges But delaying mitigation will substantially increase the challenges associated with limiting warming to 2°C AR5 WGI SPM, AR5 WGII SPM,AR5 WGIII SPM IPCC Report

31 Mitigation Measures More efficient use of energy Greater use of low-carbon and no-carbon energy Many of these technologies exist today Improved carbon sinks Reduced deforestation and improved forest management and planting of new forests Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage Lifestyle and behavioural changes AR5 WGIII SPM IPCC Report

32 Extracts from IPCC Report 2. Future Climate Changes, Risks and Impacts Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and long- lasting changes in all components of the climate system, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems. Limiting climate change would require substantial and sustained reductions in greenhouse gas emissions which, together with adaptation, can limit climate change. 2.1 Key drivers of future climate Cumulative emissions of CO2 largely determine global mean surface warming by the late 21st century and beyond. Projections of greenhouse gas emissions vary over a wide range, depending on both socioeconomic development and climate policy. Source : IPCC : http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_SPM.pdf http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_SPM.pdf 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 32

33 Extracts from IPCC Report Cont. 2 3. Future Pathways for Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development Adaptation and mitigation are complementary strategies for reducing and managing the risks of climate change. Substantial emissions reductions over the next few decades can reduce climate risks in the 21st century and beyond, increase prospects for effective adaptation, reduce the costs and challenges of mitigation in the longer term, and contribute to climate-resilient pathways for sustainable development. 3.2 Climate change risks reduced by mitigation and adaptation Without additional mitigation efforts beyond those in place today, and even with adaptation, warming by the end of the 21st century will lead to high to very high risk of severe, widespread, and irreversible impacts globally (high confidence). Mitigation involves some level of co-benefits and of risks due to adverse side-effects, but these risks do not involve the same possibility of severe, widespread, and irreversible impacts as risks from climate change, increasing the benefits from near-term mitigation efforts. Source : IPCC : http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_SPM.pdf http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/SYR_AR5_SPM.pdf 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 33

34 Proton Exchange Membrane PEM FC Basic Cell Reaction 2H 2 + O 2  2H 2 O + 2e - 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 34

35 PEM Fuel Cell Stack Structure 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 35

36 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Principle Gas Suited Fuel Cell « SOFC » 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O + 2e - 2CO + O 2 2CO 2 + 2e - Basic Cell Reaction H 2 + CO + CO 2 CO 2 + H 2 CH 4 + H 2 O CO + H 2 O Reforming 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 36

37 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 37

38 Well_Head Gas Composition 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 38

39 FC Impurities Tolerance – ref. data Fuel Impurity Tolerance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Kazunari SasakiKazunari Sasaki, S. Adachi, K. Haga, M. Uchikawa, J. Yamamoto, A. Iyoshi, J.-T. Chou, Y. Shiratori & K. ItohS. AdachiK. HagaM. UchikawaJ. YamamotoA. IyoshiJ.-T. ChouY. ShiratoriK. Itoh http://ecst.ecsdl.org/content/7/1/1675.short Sulfur Poisoning of SOFCs: Voltage Oscillation and Ni Oxidation T. YoshizumiT. Yoshizumi, S. Taniguchi, Y. Shiratori K. SasakiS. TaniguchiY. ShiratoriK. Sasaki http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/159/11/F693.abstract Phosphorus Poisoning of Ni-Cermet Anodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells K. HagaK. Haga, Y. Shiratori, Y. Nojiri, K. Ito, & K. SasakY. ShiratoriY. NojiriK. ItoK. Sasak http://jes.ecsdl.org/content/157/11/B1693.abstract 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 39

40 Varied FC Plates Profiles 04/12/2014 RCJY JubailZaff Hi-Tech MoU ; FC Technology for KSA 40


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