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Data Communication and the Cloud

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1 Data Communication and the Cloud
Chapter 6 Data Communication and the Cloud

2 GearUp: “No, I Mean 25 Cents an Hour.”
GearUp’s Web hosting costs rising rapidly Lucas suggests provisioning Web servers and databases in the cloud Provision server resources by the hour Costs: $50/mo plus 25¢ per hour for processing time used Could yield huge savings GOALS Illustrate the importance and promise of the cloud. Show nontechnical business managers need to engage in conversations and make decisions about information technology. See firsthand the benefits of the cloud to business… in this case, a small startup that needs to conserve its cash. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Study Questions Q1: What is a computer network? Q2: What are the components of a LAN? Q3: What are the fundamental concepts you should know about the Internet? Q4: What processing occurs on a typical Web server? Q5: Why is the cloud the future for most organizations? Q6: How can organizations use the cloud? Q7: 2023? This chapter defines essential data communications terms and explains basic concepts. It begins with a discussion of LANs, Internet fundamentals, Web servers and basic Web technologies. Next, a discussion of why the cloud is the future for most organizations and how it can be used. Lastly, a look at current trends and a projection of them to 2023. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

4 Q1: What Is a Computer Network?
A computer network is a collection of computers that communicate with one another over wired and wireless transmission media. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

5 Q2: What Are the Components of a LAN?
SOHO LAN Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
LAN Protocol IEEE 802.3 Wired LAN 10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet IEEE Wireless LAN 802.11n Up to 600 Mbps Bluetooth Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

7 Summary of LAN and WAN Networks
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

8 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Connecting to an ISP Important ISP functions: Provide a legitimate Internet address Gateway to the Internet Pay for the Internet by collecting money from customers and paying access fees and other charges to telecom Gateway function – The ISP receives the communications from your computer and passes them on to the Internet, and it receives communications from the Internet and passes them to you. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

9 Using MIS InClass 6: A Group Exercise Opening Pandora’s Box
Sonos: leverages technology to provide entertainment High-quality, wireless LAN audio systems Uses wired Ethernet to link up to 32 other Sonos devices around home Each device can play own music or same audio program Includes a small computer running Linux and a proprietary Sonos protocol GOAL: Get students to see how telecommunications knowledge can have personal uses. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Q3: What Are the Fundamental Concepts You Should Know About the Internet? Using the Internet for a Hotel Reservation Assume you send a message to a server in the New Zealand hotel. Message is too big to travel in one piece, so it’s broken into packets and each packet passes along from WAN to WAN until it reaches its destination. Once all the packets arrive, message is reconstructed and delivered to the server for processing. All of this is accomplished by computers and data communications devices that most likely have not interacted before. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11 TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
Protocols used on Internet are arranged according to an international standardized structure known as TCP/IP Protocol architecture. TCP/IP has five protocol types arranged in layers. One or more protocols are defined at each layer. Data communications and software vendors write computer programs that implement the rules of a particular protocol. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

12 Application Layer Protocols
Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) HTTPS – Secure HTTP data transmission Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP ) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) The Web is Internet-based network of browsers and servers that process HTTP or HTTPS. When you send or download a file using FTP, you are using the Internet, but not the Web. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

13 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
TCP and IP Protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Breaks traffic up into packets and sends each one along its way IP (Internet Protocol) Routers What is the purpose of the transport and internet layers? These protocols manage traffic as it passes across an internet (including the Internet) from one network to another. Most important protocol in transport layer is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

14 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
IP Addressing Public IP Addresses Identify a particular device on public Internet Public IP addresses must be unique, worldwide Assignment controlled by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) Private IP Addresses Identify a particular device on a private network Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

15 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
IP Addressing (cont'd) Major benefits Public IP: All devices on LAN share a public IP address Private IP: Need not register computer with ICANN-approved agencies Private/public IP address scheme has two major benefits. Public IP addresses are conserved, which means all computers on a LAN use only one public IP address. By using private IP addresses, eliminates registering a public IP address for your computer with ICANN-approved agencies. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

16 Functions of the LAN Device
Switch processing: IEEE wired LAN traffic Access-point processing: IEEE wireless LAN traffic Translating between IEEE and IEEE Converting between Analog and Digital Assigning private IP addresses Converting IP address between private and public IP addresses Routing packets, and more … Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

17 Public IP Addresses and Domain Names
IPv4 Four decimal dotted notation like Domain name Worldwide-unique name affiliated with a public IP address Affiliation of domain names with IP addresses is dynamic URL (Uniform Resource Locator) Most common IP addresses format is the IPv4. ICANN administers a system for assigning names to IP addresses. First, a domain name is a worldwide-unique name affiliated with a public IP address. Second, affiliation of domain names with IP addresses is dynamic. Owner of the domain name can change the affiliated IP addresses at its discretion. URL consists of a protocol (like or ftp://) followed by a domain name or public IP address. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

18 Domain Registrar Company
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

19 Remote Access Using VPN
A VPN server uses the Internet to create a secure, private point-to-point connection. A remote VPN client establishes a connection to VPN server via the Internet. Connection can be through a local ISP, or an organization that provides a direct Internet connection. The VPN client and VPN server create a secure point-to-point connection called a tunnel. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

20 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
WAN Using VPN VPN client software encrypts the original message. Then, VPN client appends Internet address of the VPN server to message and sends it over the Internet. Receiving VPN server strips off the address from message, decrypts coded message, and sends plain text message to designated address on the LAN. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

21 Ethics Guide: Is It Spying or Just Good Management?
Techniques used Key loggers Log files Packet sniffers Video surveillance cameras Audio recorders Office spies Text mining Employees at will 92% of employers monitor employees’ , telephone and Internet use. (2003) GOALS: Alert students that: Employers will monitor their use of employer-managed computers. Employers will monitor their use of their own equipment if the employee uses any employer-managed network. If they surrender their own mobile devices for management by their employer, employer may install software for monitoring their use of that equipment. Their right to say what they want is protected by the 1st Amendment, but that doesn’t mean they won’t be fired for what they (legally) say. As employees at will, their employment can be terminated for almost any reason. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

22 Q4: What Processing Occurs on a Typical Web Server?
Almost all e-commerce applications use three-tier architecture. Commerce server is an application program that runs on a server-tier computer. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

23 Sample of Commerce Server Pages; Product Offer Pages
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

24 Watch the Three Tiers in Action!
Assume customer has navigated through zulily.com to find an item. To produce this page, commerce server accessed a database to obtain product picture, price, special terms, product information, and related products. Customer places items in shopping cart. When customer checks out, commerce server program processes payment, schedules inventory processing, and arranges shipping. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

25 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) code defines structure and layout of Web pages. HTML headings provide metadata about page and a body that contains content. Tag <h1> means to format indicated text as a level-one heading; <h2> means a level two heading. Tag <a href=“http://...”> defines a hyperlink. Each attribute has a standard name. Attribute for a hyperlink is href, and its value indicates URL of Web page to display when link is clicked. HTML has problems and limitations overcome by newer technologies. HTML5 most current version. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

26 Q5: Why Is the Cloud the Future for Most Organizations?
What is the Cloud? Elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over the Internet Elastic Dynamically increasing/decreasing of leased resources in short time span, and only pay for resources used Cloud resources “pooled” because many different organizations use same physical hardware and share it using virtualization. Cloud resources accessed via Internet protocols that enable cloud-hosting vendors to provide processing capabilities in flexible, yet standardized ways. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

27 Apple Data Center in Maiden, NC
Building contains computers in a Web farm to support Apple’s iCloud offering. Billion-dollar facility contains more than 500,000 square feet. IBM, Google, Amazon, Microsoft, Oracle, and others operate similar farms. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

28 Why Is the Cloud Preferred to In-House Hosting?
Positives heavily tilted toward cloud-based computing. Cloud vendor, RackSpace, will lease one medium server for as low as 1.5 cents per hour. Companies can obtain and start using cloud services in a few minutes. As long as you’re dealing with large, reputable cloud vendors, you will get best-of-breed security and disaster recovery services. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

29 Why Is the Cloud Preferred to In-House Hosting? (cont’d)
Negatives of cloud computing involve loss of control due to vendor dependency. Changes in management, policies, prices are beyond your control. You don’t know where your data are located, how many copies there are, where they’re located, or whether security and disaster preparedness measures are actually in place. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

30 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Why Now? Technology now supports construction and use of enormous data centers Processors, data communication, and data storage are so cheap as to be nearly free. Huge Web farms providing a virtual machine for essentially nothing (1.5¢ per hour). Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

31 When Does the Cloud Not Make Sense?
Law or industry standard practices require physical control over the data Private cloud In-house hosting, delivered via Web service standards It might not make sense when required by law, or by industry standard practices, to have physical control over the data. Organizations, such as a financial institution, might be forced to create and maintain their own hosting infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

32 Q6: How Can Organizations Use the Cloud?
Three Fundamental Cloud Types SaaS provides hardware infrastructure, operating systems and application programs. PaaS vendors provide hosted computers, an operating system, and possibly a DBMS. IaaS is cloud hosting on barebones server or disk drive. GearUp needs to put its Web servers and its database server in the cloud using PaaS. GearUp could use Windows Azure for Web servers and SQL Azure for database server. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

33 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Q7: 2023? Cloud computing benefit Individuals on iCloud Small groups using Office 365 Startups Using PaaS Huge organizations using IaaS New categories of products and services Create new jobs? Tele-action Telediagnosis, telesurgery, telelaw enforcement New jobs will be created. Everything will be connected to everything else, with most data stored in the cloud. New categories of products and services will emerge that should create jobs. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

34 Ethics Guide: You Said What? About Me??? In Class???
Packet analyzer. a.k.a. packet sniffer Read, record, and display all wireless packets around them Pickup instant messages, most , and any Web traffic GOAL: Alert students to: Dangers of , texting, and http processing on Web sites over public wireless nets Ease with which packing sniffing can be done Availability of https://google.com Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

35 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
What Can You Do? Use https:// Packet sniffer will know where you went, but won’t obtain data about what you did there. Do not use your computer or mobile device for any unauthorized purpose in class. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

36 Guide: Thinking Exponentially Is Not Possible, But…
Humans think linearly, not exponentially No one in 1990s could imagine growth in magnetic storage and what we would do with it. Exponential growth in: Number of Internet connections Web pages Amount of data accessible on Internet GOALS Sensitize students to the difficulty of thinking exponentially. Describe strategies that students can use to deal with exponential phenomena in their professional lives. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

37 Linear vs. Exponential Growth
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

38 Guide: Thinking Exponentially Is Not Possible, But…(cont’d)
What can we do to better anticipate? People want to do what they’re already doing. Hedging your bets Position yourself to move quickly as direction becomes clear. Risk: Error increases exponentially as time frame increases. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

39 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Active Review Q1: What is a computer network? Q2: What are the components of a LAN? Q3: What are the fundamental concepts you should know about the Internet? Q4: What processing occurs on a typical Web server? Q5: Why is the cloud the future for most organizations? Q6: How can organizations use the cloud? Q7: 2023? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

40 Case Study 6: Turbulent Air in Those Azure Clouds
Microsoft must find a profitable way to put a big part of its business out of business If Azure successful, Office 365 will replace Windows Server and SQL Server, which is 24% of current revenue GOAL: Stimulate thinking about what changes cloud computing might cause. Get students to see how important the cloud and Azure are as paradigm shifts, game changers, for companies like Dell and Microsoft that sell Web servers. Microsoft has a huge problem. Change is in the air, the cloud is real. Apple currently has the momentum with young and hip customers. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

41 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Azure Standard Rates Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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