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Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr This set of 21 PowerPoint transparencies contains information about concepts and use of ATLAS.ti,

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr This set of 21 PowerPoint transparencies contains information about concepts and use of ATLAS.ti,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr This set of 21 PowerPoint transparencies contains information about concepts and use of ATLAS.ti, Please read copyright note on transparency no. 2. ATLAS.ti The Knowledge Workbench

2 Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr The PowerPoint transparencies included in this package may be used to support your ATLAS.ti workshops, training sessions & demonstrations. You may alter the transparencies to fit your needs, but please do not remove original copyright notes. If you have any transparencies either self made or created via modification of the existing sheets we will all be happy if you make these available for the public. In no event may the transparencies included in this package be commercially exploited (e.g., sold) either altered or unaltered without prior written permission by the author, Thomas Muhr, Berlin. © Copyright Note

3 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 ATLAS.ti - The Knowledge Workbench Basics: n n QDA & ATLAS.ti n n VISE: Visualization, Integration, Serendipity and Exploration n n Users: from Sigmund Freud to Sherlock Holmes n n The main concepts: of Hermeneutic Units, Families and other species n n Strategies: Textual and Conceptual level n n The user interface: Keep focused on the data n n Back to the future: The Paper & Pencil look & feel n n Basic Procedures: Coding, commenting, retrieving, printing, preparing, n Beyond Text: Working with graphics, audio & video materials n Structures: Weaving semantic networks n Hypertext: What codes can’t do for you n Retrieval: Using Boolean, Semantic and Proximity operators n Super Codes: Intensional codes or frozen hypotheses? n Cooperation: Merging projects n Interfaces: ASCII/ANSI, SPSS, HTML, PROLOG, WMF, XML n Miscellaneous: Data safety, memo outsourcing, text management, setup, capacities Advanced Topics:

4 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, Basic Principles: VISE s Visualization s Use adequate tools for handling complexity and stay focused on the data s Integration s Bundle all relevant data and interpretations into a unique project: the “Hermeneutic Unit” s Serendipity s Make relevant discoveries without searching... s Exploration s Traverse the “interpretative threads” between data, codes, and memos

5 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Areas of Application Criminology Planning Applications Social Sciences & Humanities Marketing Research Libraries & Archives Urban Development Literature Astronomy Art Theology Medicine Public Health Education

6 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Textinterpretation as Text-to-Text Compile the primary documents: Texts, Graphics, Audio, Video Open up a “Context of Discovery” to explore the data and add structure Result: another text, diagrams, a WWW- document ?

7 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 A HU’s Abstractional Layers Code family Primary documents Quotations Codes Super Codes Families Networks contained-in causes isa causes uses contained-in indicated-by supports Hermeneutic Unit

8 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Graphical Primary Documents Display comments for image sections with a mouseclick Graphical list of contents

9 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Industry Standards supported by ATLAS.ti 4.2 Standardization PresentationRepresentation HTML XML 1.0 ASCII WMF APN SPSS RTF SGML BMP TIF, JPG, Kodak PCD, SUN Raster... Not supported Exported Imported Im- & Export PCD ANSI Will be supported in 5.0 Currently memos and codes

10 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Inter-Application Data Exchange Text can be dragged from WinWord or any other text processors (capable of OLE- 2 drag & drop) into ATLAS/ti. Text import is also available via Copy & Paste. Dropped into a Network View, a new memo is automatically created from the text A mouse click displays the new memos’ text.

11 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 HTML Code Generator The conversion of Hermeneutic Units into HTML code enables new ways of structured publishing. Research teams can quickly exchange ideas and complete projects world wide.

12 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 The HU Editor - ATLAS.ti’s main work space Dropdown fields for Primary Docs, Quotations, Codes and Memos Main menuMain toolbar Margin area Splitter bar to resize panes Detached code list Primary Document area Selected Quotation Context menu

13 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Network Editor

14 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Hypertext - what codes cannot do contradicts Code A Code B Q1 Q2 While codes describe similarity of the coded segments, it is hard to represent relations (beside the equivalence relation) between individual segments. Only direct links (“hyper-links”) between segments enable the representation of such local knowledge. If one would establish a link between the codes in the example to emulate a hyper link, we would have to assume that these codes do not refer to any other segments, but are used as labels for individual segments: a clear “misuse” of codes.... ATLAS/ti supports named links between data segments. supports Q3

15 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 The QueryTool The QueryTool retrieves data segments by their attached codes using Boolean, proximity and semantic operators. Queries are entered in RPN calculator style. Boolean operators Semantic operators Proximity operators OR XOR AND NOT SUB UP SIB WITHIN ENCLOSES OVERLAPPED_BY OVERLAPS FOLLOWS PRECEDES COOCCUR Term stack Feedback pane Results Stack manipulation Clear stack Swap the two topmost elements Push - duplicate topmost element Recalculate results Undo last operation Redo last undone operation Create Super Code Change feedback display mode Codes Families Textbase selection Follows/Precedes distance control

16 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Boolean retrieval is purely set based. Elements are assumed to be independent. No property of a retrieved segment other than being coded with codes A,B,..X is taken into account. Overselectivity: AND (A1, A2,..., An) fails even with n-1 matching terms. Underspecified: OR (A1, A2,..., An) succeeds with everything from 1 to n matching terms. A segment coded with only one code is treated equal to one coded with all of them. Retrieval Methods I - Boolean Retrieval A B not (A or B) A or B A and B not A and B A xor B A and not B Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Document universe: Q1,...,Q5 Query examples: A -> {Q1, Q2, Q3} B -> {Q3, Q4} not A -> {Q4, Q5} A or B -> {Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4} A xor B -> {Q1, Q2, Q4} not (A or B) -> {Q5} A and not B -> {Q1, Q2} A and B -> {Q3} not A and B -> {Q4}

17 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, Proximity retrieval takes the spatial relations between the retrieved elements into account. A segment can overlap, follow, enclose or simply cooccur with another segment. The semantics were adapted from Allen’s time logic calculus. Retrieval Methods II - Proximity Retrieval A B Q1 Q4 Q5 Q2 Q3 Primary document P1 In addition to the Boolean conditions described above, the following proximity relations hold: B overlaps A -> {Q3, Q4} A overlapped by B -> {Q1, Q2} C overlaps B -> {Q5} A within C -> {Q2} A overlaps C -> {Q3} C follows A -> {Q5} B overlaps C -> {Q3, Q4} etc. Note, that proximity operators are non-commutative: B op A is not the same as A op B Operand input order is significant! C

18 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Semantic, or thesaurus-based retrieval takes transitive relations between the terms (codes) into account. Its quality is dependent upon the quality of the semantic network used. Retrieval Methods III - Semantic Retrieval Q1 Example queries using the semantic operator SUB on the terminology network below: sub (Positive Attitude) -> {Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5} sub (Negative Attitude} -> {Q6, Q7, Q8} sub (Attitude) -> {Q1,.., Q8} While the extension of sub (Positive Attitude) and or (Love, Kindness) is identical for the example below {Q1,..,Q5}, the intension is different. The former query will - unaltered! - yield different results with another subterm of Pos. Attitude. The latter query will not ecognize this new fact and has to be reformulated. Love Q4 Q5 Q2 Q3 Q1 Kindness Positive Attitude Positive Attitude Q6 Q7 Q8 isa Negative Attitude Negative Attitude isa Hatred Anger isa indicated by sibling Document level Domain level

19 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 QueryTool: Building Queries Boolean, proximity and semantic operators are combined using the “click-language” par excellence: the Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) by Lukasiewicz 1. RPN is a parenthesis-free postfix language: operands first, then the operators. The main ingredience of the RPN query processor is the Stack, a data structure, that is very similar to a pile of plates: It can only be accessed from the top: new plates are put on the pile, plates can only be removed from the top. 1 Born 1878 in Lvov (now Ukraine), died 1956 in Dublin, Ireland. Polish Minister of Education in 1919 and professor at Warsaw University from 1920 to 1939) Old HP 29C RPN calculator Example: “All quotations coded with ‘Positive Attitude’ and any of its sub codes but not with ‘Kindness’” in formal infix notation: SUB Pos. Attitude AND NOT Kindness Step:12345 Enter:Pos. Att.SUB (1)KindnessNOT (1)AND (2) Stack:Pos. Att.SUB(Pos.Att)KindnessNOT(Kindness)AND(NOT(Kindness), SUB(Pos.Att)) --SUB(Pos.Att) SUB(Pos.Att)- Result:{} {Q1,...,Q5}{Q3,Q4,Q5}{Q1,Q2,Q6,Q7,Q8}{Q1,Q2} Note, how every operator takes (“pops”) its appropriate number of arguments from the stack and “pushes” the resulting term back on the stack. Every entry, operand or operator generates a result. No “syntactic sugar” is needed as in “infix” notations (eg. parentheses). Number of arguments

20 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 The QueryTool: Super Codes A well constructed, non-trivial query is often the result of a considerable amount of work and ways to make a query reusable are needed: Super Codes. Super Codes are also an important tool for theory construction as they capture hypotheses for repeated validation against the data. Normal codes store direct quotation references, super codes store queries. Although the visible “clicking behavior” of a super code resembles that of normal codes, there is a considerable difference of “how” each generates its references: Query X Normal codes deliver their quotation references. The result changes only by explicitely assigning new or removing existing references. Super codes recalculate the stored query “when-needed” and deliver the result. When any of the conditions of the query change, the super codes result list changes as well - without any changes to the latter. Unlike other approaches that store the “extension” (the result set) of a query, super codes store the queries’ “intension”. Super codes are “first class” objects and can be used in queries (and in other super codes).

21 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Team Work - Merging Projects I Merging projects is mandatory for the support of teams working on separate data and/or different code sets. A number of stock merge strategies permits efficient control over the resulting project. Strategies can be freely adapted to fit specific needs. Team A Team A‘s combined project All teams‘ combined project Team B Team B‘s combined project

22 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 Merging Projects II - Strategies Merging proceeds as subsequent and repeated merging of partial projects into a target project. A merge strategy controls the method of how the different object types (e.g. primary docs, codes) from the source projects migrate into the target project. Examples: A Different data sets, same codes This strategy supports an economic handling of large primary data in a top-down approach. B Same data, different codes By applying this method, different aspects of a theory can be applied to the same data sets. Example (P i ::= primary documents, C i ::= codes): HU 1 {P 1,..,P n } {C 1,..,C m } source project HU 2 {P 1,..,P k } {C 1,..,C m } target project (before merge) Target project after the merge: Strategie A: HU {P 1,..,P n,P n+1,..,P n+k } {C 1,..,C m } Strategie B: HU {P 1,..,P n=k } {C 1,..,C m,C m+1,..,C m’ }

23 ATLAS.ti ® Scientific Software Development - Copyright 2001 Thomas Muhr© Scientific Software Development, Berlin, 2001 What’s new in ATLAS.ti 4.2 s WYSIWYG - printouts of primary texts plus margin s Media - fine-grained segmentation and coding of video and audio files (incl. MP3!) s Improved Margin Area s Networks - vector export to drawing software, Word ® etc. s Wordcruncher - count word occurrences and calculate type/token ratio. s New reports s Primary Doc Path Mapping Tool s XML - memo and code import & export


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