Presentation on theme: "Toward a Large-Scale Model of Language Comprehension in ACT-R 6 July 2007 Jerry Ball 1, Andrea Heiberg 2, and Ronnie Silber 3 Air Force Research Laboratory."— Presentation transcript:
Toward a Large-Scale Model of Language Comprehension in ACT-R 6 July 2007 Jerry Ball 1, Andrea Heiberg 2, and Ronnie Silber 3 Air Force Research Laboratory 1 L3 Communications 2 Lockheed Martin 3
2 The VERBOSE Project Verbalization Between Operators and Synthetic Entities Synthetic Teammate – Air Vehicle Operator (AVO) Flies Simulated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Communicates with other team members – Language Capable Comprehension Generation Dialog Management
3 Chat Output Language Comprehension Language Generation Dialog Manager ACT-R Architecture Motor Model Motor Actions Situation Model Visual Input Chat Input VERBOSE System Overview
4 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Simulation Three-Person Team Performing Reconnaissance Missions – Air Vehicle Operator (AVO) Flies UAV – Payload Operator (PLO) Takes pictures of targets – Data Exploitation Mission Planning & Communications (DEMPC) Officer Plans mission Cognitive Engineering Research on Team Tasks (CERTT) Lab
5 AVO DEMPCPLO Experimenter Station Cognitive Engineering Research on Team Tasks (CERTT) Lab
6 Next Waypoints Altitude Air Speed To Goal Gear and Flaps Request Flight Plan Artificial horizon and course AVO Screen 1
9 Theoretical Foundations Language Representation and Processing Double R Grammar – Cognitive Linguistic theory of the grammatical encoding of referential and relational meaning Double R Process – Psycholinguistic theory of the processing of English text into Double R Grammar based representations Double R Model – Computational implementation using the ACT-R cognitive architecture and modeling environment www.DoubleRTheory.com
10 Empirical Validation of Linguistic Representations Empirical study to determine the kinds of linguistic representations that humans construct during language comprehension – What is/are the basic structure(s) of the clause? Subject Predicate Subject Verb Object Other – Methodology Ask subjects to group words in expressions into meaningful units Assumes subjects have explicit knowledge of the meaningful groups that occur in expressions the man bit the dog
11 Empirical Study – Preliminary Results A pilot study was conducted Results were compared to an early study by Levelt which used multidimensional scaling: – Levelt, W. (1970). A scaling approach to the study of syntactic relations. In G. B. Flores d’Arcais and W. Levelt (eds.) Advances in psycholinguistics 109- 121. NY: Elsevier.
12 Levelt’s Early Study the boy has lost a dollar 60 80 100 Relative frequency of “more related” in triadic comparison % Connectedness method
13 Pilot Study vs. Levelt Study boyhaslostadollarthe boyhaslostadollarthe Levelt Study Pilot Study
18 Start with Scripted Communication AVO: DEMPC this is AVO, please let me know the first waypoint! DEMPC: The first waypoint is LVN. It’s an entry point. There are no airspeed or altitude restrictions. The effective radius is 2.5 miles. AVO: PLO, I’m heading towards LVN. DEMPC: We’re within the effective radius so go to the second waypoint. AVO: Are there any altitude or airspeed restrictions for the second waypoint? DEMPC: The second waypoint is H-AREA. It’s a target. The airspeed restriction is between 50 and 200 knots. There is no altitude restriction. The effective radius is 5 miles. PLO: AVO, please keep the altitude over 3000 feet for the photo! PLO: I have a good photo of H-AREA. AVO: Moving on to the next waypoint.