Presentation on theme: "FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMS for Lancashire County Council. Presented by Mike Turner ECA Fire and Security Sector."— Presentation transcript:
FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEMS for Lancashire County Council. Presented by Mike Turner ECA Fire and Security Sector
AGENDA UNDERSTANDING OF: Changes to BS5839 pt 1 :2002 Cable grades and requirements Detection selection Detector coverage Differences between Non addressable and Addressable EN54 / BS5839 2002 False alarm management Mains fire Alarms Warning for people with impaired hearing and sight Certification for: – Design, Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance
CATEGORIES Categories previously known as Types Designer alone can not select Categories Risk Assessment End user building Control / Fire Officer Designer Insurance
CATEGORIES M and L1 to L4 (Previously known as Types) CatActivation methodAlarm devices MMCPThroughout L4MCP + AFD on escape routes onlyThroughout L3MCP + AFD on escape routes AFD in rooms opening onto* Throughout L2MCP + AFD as L3 + specified areas Throughout L1MCP + AFD throughoutThroughout AFD on escape routes should be optical smoke detection or CO mix
CATEGORY L5 –Fire safety engineering For category L5, the person or organisation doing the risk assessment takes on the legal responsibility This requires serious design ability, risk assessment procedures, knowledge of fire safety engineering, professional indemnity insurance CatActivation methodAlarm devices L5AFD where specifiedThroughout L5/MAFD where specified + MCPThroughout
CATEGORIES P1 and P2 CatActivation methodAlarm devices P1AFD throughoutWhere required P1/MAFD throughout + MThroughout P2AFD where specifiedWhere required P2/MAFD where specified + MThroughout
COMMUNICATIONS WITH THE FIRE SERVICE Designer to ascertain if automatic comms required For Cat P, Communications recommended unless continuously occupied BS 5979 for ARC Communication unit to be protected by AFD Communication cables routed through: –Areas of low fire risk; OR –Areas protected by AFD or extinguishing; OR –Using fire resistant cables
SITING THE Control and Indicating Equipment Consult user / fire authorities Near entrance – repeaters may be required at other entrances – consultation Adequate light – normal and emergency Low ambient noise – fault buzzer Low fire hazard AFD – unless continually occupied or negligible fire hazard Accessible for servicing if necessary.
VARIATIONS from BS 5839-1 Variations were previously deviations Not an excuse for ignoring non-compliances to BS 5839-1 Most jobs will not need variations Variations apply to intentional and appropriate aspects, following a risk assessment Features found by installer not known to designer should be documented for action / agreement All variations to be agreed with interested parties –owner/user/client/insurer/fire authority
MCP ZONES - LANDINGS MCP in accommodation zone, not in stairway zone, at that level (in main area or on landing) Zone 2 Zone 3 Z4Z5 Zone 1 Z1 Z2 Z3 EITHER OR PREFERABLE
MANUAL CALL POINTS BS EN 54-11, single action, RED Breaking frangible element operates switch All the call points must be similar –do not mix hammer and thumb push types Use plastic element (not glass) in food prep areas if requested (consultation) If necessary, use drip proof, waterproof or hazardous area types Some shops do not have public call points
SITING manual call points Final exit to open air Landing Stairway 1.4m Exit 15mm projection Escape route Up to 90m
SITING manual call points Paint booth 45m 30m Travel distance up to 45m Stairway
ALARM warning devices Large qty of low power, not small qty high power 65dBA generally, or 5dBA above ambient noise (30s) 75dBA to awake at bed head 120dBA max 500 TO 1000Hz 20 to 30dBA loss at doors 20dBA 30dBA 125dBA 85dBA 95dBA
ALARMS 65dBA is the general recommendation 2 or 3dBA is not noticeable to the human ear May be relaxed to 60dBA: –stairways, offices up 60sq m, limited points Similar sounds, i.e. not mixing bells/sounders 65dBA CORE AREA, IGNORE 0.5m BORDER ROOM
VISUAL ALARMS Visual alarms if ambient noise more than 90dBA, or ear protection is worn Readily visible, different from other visual indicators 30 to 100 flashes per minute Preferably red light flash Attracts attention, but not glare, min 2.1m Height and no closer than 150mm to ceiling 2.1m min height 150mm min
FIRE ALARMS DEVICES Meeting rooms, 60dBA Bedrooms, 75dBA general quiet offices, greater than 60sq m area, 65dBA Limited area 60dBA min Press shop, 95dBA noise, 65dBA + VISUAL Machine shop, 78dBA noise, 83dBA Stairs, 60dBA External audio/visual for Category P
WIRING: fire resistance All cables for critical signal paths and mains supply should be fire resistant for 30 minuets (Fire shock and water spray resistant tests) Specification for cable performance Clause 26.2.d GRADES OF FIRE RESISTANT CABLE Most premises – Standard grade, BS 7629 –soft skinned (modified plastic cable) Higher risk – Enhanced grade, MI or equivalent –30m high, long evacuation or 4 stage evacuation –or as required by risk assessment –LCC stipulate MICC for all Installations
WIRING: requirements Mechanical protection – Below 2m –MI or steel wire armoured self protected 1sq mm minimum Segregation from other services for EMC Same colour cable throughout – red preferred Integrity not compromised by fixings or joints –joints minimised –junction boxes labelled “fire alarm”
TYPES OF FIRE DETECTOR Heat –Point, fixed, rate of rise –Linear heat sensing cable Smoke –Point, ionisation, optical –Linear optical beam –Aspirating, sampling points – holes in pipe –Video, image processing Combustion gas, CO –Incomplete combustion, not smoke detection Flame –Infra-red –Ultra-violet Multi-sensor –e.g. heat and optical smoke
EXAMPLE DETECTOR CHOICES Escape routes Rooms opening onto Prot life where fire starts Liquid fuel store CategoryL1L3-4L3L1 Heat pt. fixed Heat pt. RoR Heat linear Optical point Ionisation point Optical beam CO mix Aspirating Flame
CHOICE OF FIRE DETECTION Speed – To suit fire hazard – min false alarms Heat – alcohol fire - good immunity to false alarms, easy maintenance, RoR most sensitive Ionisation smoke – small invisible particles Opt smoke – visible smoke, escape routes Multi-sensor fire detector Flame – specialist e.g. atria, range see manf. data fixed RoR T deg C fixed heat det thresholds 80 70 60
Sampling Pipes Sampling Pipes End Cap Air Samples Atmosfire...it actively draws a continuous air sample through a sampling pipe network ASPIRATING SMOKE DETECTION
CHOICE OF FIRE DETECTION Opt beam – large areas, high level Aspirating – aesthetics, high level, vert pipes Tx Rx Tx/Rx reflector Optical beam Aspirating detector X Sampling points (holes)
SITING DETECTORS Vertical structures: Enclosed stairways L1,L2,L3,L4,P1,P2 –Top of stairway –Each main landing Flue-like structures Lifts, Risers etc L1,L2,L3,P1 –Top –Within 1.5m of opening e.g.lift shaft
SITING DETECTORS - VOIDS Voids, smoke or heat to suit risk If appropriate to Category,L1,L2,L3,P1 all voids more than 800mm deep Floor or ceiling voids Consider for smaller voids if risk assessment justifies Lantern lights (sky lights) more than 800mm deep 800mm or more Less than 800mm Data and power cables 800mm or more
COVERAGE for point detectors Spacings specified in BS 5839 part 1 (2002) Any point in a room to a detector should be less than: –7.5m for smoke detectors –5.3m for heat detectors Escape route up to 2m wide –Smoke detectors up to 15m apart, 7.5m to end Corridor up to 2m wide – (Category P only) –Heat detectors up to 10.6m apart, 5.3m to end
SMOKE DETECTOR: spacing CORRIDOR 5m WIDE detectors on centre line 5m 7.5m 14.1m 15m 7.5m Up to 2m wide corridor area 10.6 x 10.6 = 112sq m OPEN AREA 7.5m 10.6m5.3m
HEAT DETECTOR: spacing 5m CORRIDOR 5m WIDE detectors on centre line 5.3m 9.4m area 7.5 x 7.5 = 56sq m OPEN AREA 5.3m 7.5m3.8m 10.6m 5.3m Up to 2m wide corridor
DETECTION IN ROOMS L3 escape route Ceiling mounted L1 to L3. Wall mounted L3. Wall mounting 150mm to 300mm below ceiling 300 150 Above door only Green = o / k Red = not allowed.
DETECTORS: partitions and walls more than 300mm ignore less than 300mm = wall ceiling floor ceiling wall 500mm minimum from wall 500mm minimum if = wall 500mm minimum clear space
Differences between Non addressable and Analogue Addressable.
TECHNOLOGY : non-addressable RADIAL SOUNDER WIRING (FIRE RESISTANT) Z1 Z2 Z3 Non- addressable panel (P) RADIAL CIRCUIT WIRING IN FIRE RESISTANT CABLE Ancillary (door retainer) Single fault limit 2000sq m
TECHNOLOGY: Addressable or Analogue addressable I/F All loop wiring in fire resistant cable 6 54 321 Addressable or Analogue addressable panel I/F 7 89 10 1112 I/F 13141516 18 17 Ancillary I/F 19 Max. loop area 10,000sq.m
TECHNOLOGY : states Alarm Pre-alarm time Normal Fault Detector output Panel indication Analogue addressable Non-addressable Normal state Fire state Panel indication Detector indication
TECHNOLOGY : comparisons day/night sensitivity --------------- NO ------------------------------------------ YES Disablement ----------------------- ------------------------ –multiple fires different zones –multiple fires same zone Location--------------- –single fire by zones ZONES 1 2 3 4 Non-addressable by zones only ZONES 1 2 3 4 ZONES 1 2 3 4 Analogue addressable individual detectors, zones or areas ZONE 1, ADDRESS 33 ROOM 127, FLOOR 1 ZONE 2, ADDRESS 60 ROOM 227, FLOOR 2 ZONE 1, ADDRESS 33 ROOM 127, FLOOR 1 scroll
TECHNOLOGY : features Cost –non-addressable is lower cost for smaller systems Faults, e.g. detector removed –Addressable or analogue addressable, the address is identified –Non-addressable, identified to radial circuits (zone 0nly) Faulty detector or incorrect type of device –A-A identifies address - not in non-addressable Wiring fault –Non-addressable, radial circuit –Addressable identifies between devices if sequential Servicing –Contamination can be displayed on A-A panel
Some legislation updates… BS5839 PT 1 :1988 WILL BE WITHDRAWN ON 15 JULY 2003 ALLSERVICING, DESIGNS AND INSTALLATIONS WILL BE TO THE NEW BS 5839PT 1:2002 FROM 15/7/2003.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS MCP BS EN 54- 11 Heat det BS EN 54- 5 Smoke det BS EN 54-7 Optical beam det BS 5839-5 pr EN 54-12 Flame det BS EN 54-10 CIE BS EN 54-2 POWER SUPPLY BS EN 54-4 Linear heat det draft BS 5839-7 Interface Alarms BS EN 54-3 Voice alarm systems BS 5839-8
FALSE ALARM MANAGEMENT Consultation with all parties Appoint a responsible person - RP Supervise painting, decorating, hot work Record and compensate for any change of use Keep fire alarm logbook up to date Agree an acceptable rate of false alarms (e.g. less than 1 false alarm per 100 detectors per annum) Ensure service and maintenance carried out If no effort to limit – system is not compliant
CATEGORIES OF FALSE ALARM False alarm categories: Equipment false alarms –Faults in equipment Unwanted alarms (equipment works perfectly) –Fire-like phenomena, e.g. smoking, burning toast, hot work, building work Malicious false alarms False alarms with good intent
CAUSES OF FALSE ALARMS fumes steam tobacco smoke; dust insects aerosol spray high air velocities hot work bonfires incense candles electromagnetic interference high humidity water ingress temperature changes accidental damage
FALSE ALARMS (SEC35.2.6) Systems with 50 or more devices require a 1 week soak test (defined by the Designer and built into the Tender). If it False Alarm’s then identify the Alarm, rectify it and start the 1 week soak test again ------- Until successful the system should not be regarded as an operational means of giving warning of a fire in the building. During this soak all MAC’S should bear an indication that it is not to be used. When all clear carry out the final hand over.
MAINTENANCE and the LAW Fire Precautions (Workplace) Regulations require a system of maintenance Systems with no battery backup are not legal –Competent Person should advise users to replace urgently Failure to keep the fire detection and alarms in good working order is a criminal offence Arranging a suitable system of maintenance is so easy to do, that neglecting to do it is blatant flouting of the law.
The HEALTH & SAFETY (SAFETY SIGNS & SIGNALS) REGULATIONS (1996) Require that fire alarm warning systems must be provided with a guaranteed emergency supply in the event of a power cut, unless the hazard has been eliminated. This means that systems not having a standby power supply (battery back up) are no longer legal. This is also a law, failure to comply being an offence.
MAINTENANCE - Non Routine Attention Special inspection on appointment of new service company Attendance available 24/7 within 8h Tests following modifications Action to address unacceptable false alarms Tests following long periods of disconnection
BS5839 PT 1 :2002 (sec18.1&2) If people are moving freely around the building then visual indication preferably RED should be installed in all necessary places, and associated toilets. Caution consider photosensitive epileptics when using strobes. If they are sleeping in the building then tactile devices may be required. For example placed under a pillow wired into the fire alarm circuit. Other options may be vibrating pagers.