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Published by Routledge © 2009 Mark Sawyer

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1 Published by Routledge © 2009 Mark Sawyer
Motivation (Ch. 8) Understanding SLA Lourdes Ortega (2009) Published by Routledge © 2009 Mark Sawyer

2 The traditional approach: AMTB & motivational quantity (8.1)
Motivation narrowly defined (Gardner) Effort (Motivational intensity) Enjoyment (L2 learning attitudes) Investment (Desire to learn L2) Quantity measured by Likert scales “Truly motivated individual” high in all 3 Unlike Kaplan, Watson lacks enjoyment

3 Integrativeness as an antecedent of motivation (8.2)
Favorable attitudes toward L2 NSs General interest in FLs (+ low ethnocentrism?) Integrative orientation Integrative motivation (subsystem) = Integrativeness is high MOT (quantity) is high

4 Other antecedents: Orientations & attitudes (8.3)
Widely reported orientations (reasons) Instrumental Knowledge Travel Friendship Integrative

5 Additional orientations
Among Anglophone Canadians Dominance/recognition Pragmatic control Familiarity/involvement Sociocultural/belletristic (Clément & Kruidenier)

6 Attitudes Come from collective values, beliefs
Based on cultural reward, modeling Specific to sociocultural milieu HS attitudes  U MOT, integrativeness (Indirectly)  U attitudes toward BiL, perceived communicative competence Attitudes, experiences  MOT (Gardner)

7 First signs of renewal (8
First signs of renewal (8.4): Self-determination theory & intrinsic motivation Types of regulation of behavior Internal (intrinsic MOT) Stimulation Self-accomplishment Knowledge Identified (positive self-image) Introjected (guilt/shame) External (extrinsic MOT)

8 8.5 Motivation from a distance: EFL learners’ orientations & attitudes
Orientations in Hungary (Clément et al.) friendship/knowledge  xenophilic instrumental/knowledge L2 media/indirect contact/cultural interest Attitudes in Japan: International Posture (Yashima) Interest in int’l vocation/activities Intercultural approach tendency Interest in foreign affairs

9 8.6 Language learning motivation: Possible in situations of conflict?
Israeli L2 learners (Donitsa-Schmidt et al.) Early starters of L3 Arabic More culture/peace/instrumental beliefs JHS learners of Arabic vs. other L3s More MOT/+ attitudes toward L3, speakers Choice of L3 made no difference Both groups: teachers, instruction impt.

10 8.7 Dynamic motivation: Time, context, behavior
Process model of MOT (Dörnyei & Ottó) MOT develops, changes over time Causal vs. teleological MOT thinking (Ushioda) Experience-based vs. Goal-oriented Micro-context, task (Dörnyei) Integrativeness & + course attitude  + task attitude  L2 output + peer attitudes also help for – task attitude New focus on behavior (Csizér & Dörnyei) e.g. language choice, intended effort

11 8.8 Looking forward: L2 motivational self system
Components Ideal L2 self (e.g. nativelike speaker) Ought-to L2 Self (e.g. mustn’t fail exam) L2 learning experience (past/present) Process Instrumentality + Attitudes to L2 group  Ideal L2 Self (new Integrativeness)

12 8.9 Behold the power of motivation
Gardner’s research: MOT predicts 9-16% of achievement Dörnyei’s new research: MOT predicts 35% of behavior (?) Caution: MOT/L2 success relationship is reciprocal rather than causal

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