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Learn how to express our point of view in writing.

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Presentation on theme: "Learn how to express our point of view in writing."— Presentation transcript:

1 learn how to express our point of view in writing

2 Throughout our lives! For example: a letter to a newspaper editor writing essays in university writing proposals and reports at work

3 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). Some smokers die at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼 古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ). Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke.

4 1. Stance 立場  Smoking is harmful to individuals in various ways, especially health. 2. Examples of sickness caused by smoking  Smoking causes health damage, such as lung cancer, heart disease and brain damage. Many people in Hong Kong are long-term smokers. Some smokers die at an early age.

5 3. Opinions 意見 from experts 專家  Doctors say that excessive smoking is a main reason for death because nicotine in cigarettes can lead to addiction. When smokers become addicted to nicotine, they constantly want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up. 4. Conclusion 總結 Clearly, it is not wise for us to smoke.

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7 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). Some smokers pass away ( 去世 ) at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine, they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄. Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke. “being” verbs

8 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). Some smokers pass away ( 去世 ) at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine, they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄. Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke. “doing” verbs

9 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). Some smokers pass away ( 去世 ) at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine, they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ) cigarettes. Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke. mental verbs

10 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). Some smokers pass away ( 去世 ) at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine, they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ) cigarettes. Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke. Verbal Verb

11 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). Some smokers die at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼 古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine, they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ) cigarettes. Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke. “Behaving” verb

12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 L13 L14 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). They smoke several packs of cigarettes ( 香煙 ) a day. As a result ( 結果 ), some smokers die at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine, they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes. Smokers do not realize ( 了解 ) that their bodies quickly ‘learn’ to depend on ( 依賴 ) nicotine and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ) cigarettes. Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke.

13 Do not say (informal: conversation 會談 ) Say (formal 正式 ) I’dI would It’sIt is There’sThere is

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15 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). Some smokers pass away ( 去世 ) at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ). Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke.

16 brain (n.) damage (n.) 腦部損害 Spoken sentence: Smoking has damaged (v.) the brain. : ( Other examples: lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 ), health damage( 損害 ), brain damage( 腦部損 害 ), excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking, addiction ( 上癮 ).

17  Subject ( 主詞 ) + Main verb ( 動詞 )  Let’s see some sentences: is L1: Smoking ( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways. causes L2: Smoking causes ( 導致 ) health damage ( 損害 )

18 are  L4~L5: Many people in Hong Kong are long-term smokers. say  L6: Doctors say the main reason for death is excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking. do not realize learn is  L9: Smokers do not realize ( 了解 ) that their bodies quickly ‘ learn ’ to depend on ( 依賴 ) nicotine and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ). Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智 的 ) to smoke.

19  ‘Please stop it’ xxxxx wrong!  We are telling readers our point of views 。  Remember: Subject ( 主詞 ) + Main verb ( 動詞 )

20 is L1: Smoking ( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways. causes L2: Smoking causes ( 導致 ) health damage ( 損害 ) say L6: Doctors say the main reason for death is excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking. do not realize learn L9: Smokers do not realize ( 了解 ) that their bodies quickly ‘ learn ’ to depend on ( 依賴 ) nicotine. Simple present 現在式

21  The simple present tense 簡單現在式  makes facts  Modal verbs 情態助動詞 e.g. can 能夠 ---express possibility must 一定; should 應該 L7: Nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ).

22  In this text, no “must” or “should”.  We use “can” 能夠 —low modality verbs—to express possibility, NOT give facts. L7: Nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ).

23  You can never to go …xxxxxx  You must not to smoke… xxxxx  Use: can lead to, might lead to, could lead to

24 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9 L10 L11 L12 L13 L14 Smoking( 吸煙 ) is harmful ( 有害的 ) to individuals ( 個人 ) in various ( 不同的 ) ways, especially health ( 健康 ). Smoking causes( 導致 ) health damage( 損害 ), such as( 例如 ) lung cancer( 肺癌 ), heart disease ( 心臟病 )and brain damage( 腦部損害 ). Many people in Hong Kong are long-term ( 長期的 ) smokers ( 吸煙者 ). They smoke several packs of cigarettes ( 香煙 ) a day. As a result ( 結果 ), some smokers pass away ( 去世 ) at an early age. Doctors say that excessive ( 過多的 ) smoking is a main reason for death ( 死亡 ) because nicotine ( 尼古丁 ) in cigarettes can lead to ( 導致 ) addiction ( 上癮 ). When smokers become addicted to ( 沉溺於 ) nicotine, they constantly( 經常地 ) want to smoke more cigarettes. Smokers do not realize ( 了解 ) that their bodies quickly ‘learn’ to depend on ( 依賴 ) nicotine and it is very difficult to give up ( 放棄 ) cigarettes. Clearly( 明顯地 ), it is not wise( 明智的 ) to smoke. ‘General’ 總括 about ‘smoking’ More specific 指定 about ‘people’ and ‘smokers’ Other participants/people are important The wording making the argument part

25  Look at the words which start the sentences  They build up the ‘backbone’ of the text

26  Can you find any ‘I think’ in this writing?  There are no ‘I think’ or ‘you think’ or ‘we think’.  This text is ‘impersonal’ because the personal pronouns ‘I’, ‘we’ ‘you’ are not found.

27 I think smoking is harmful. We think smoking causes disease.


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