Presentation on theme: "L9: Economic Life Under Stalin"— Presentation transcript:
1L9: Economic Life Under Stalin AgendaObjective:To understand…Stalin’s economic program: The Five Year Plan & CollectivizationHow these plans:Are representative of Soviet totalitarianismInvoke a “war” mentality in the USSRServe as political programsFunction to exert panoptic control over the Soviet people.Schedule:Lecture, Video Clips, and DiscussionHomeworkWork on prewriting check-in. Rolling Deadline.
2Guiding QuestionsWhere do you see characteristics of totalitarianism in Stalin’s regime?How was the Soviet Union a “nation at war” under the economic policies of Stalin?In what ways were the Five Year Plan and Collectivization actually political programs?In what ways were the Five Year Plan and Collectivization designed to exert panoptic control over the Soviet people?Think about why people went along with the economic programs.
3Stalin’s Vision for the Soviet Union To Stalin, the primary goal of the Soviet Union was to industrialize in order to first catch up with the west, and then to surpass it. Moreover, he wanted to do so at break-neck speed.“…Now that we have overthrown capitalism and power is in our hands, in the hands of the people, we have a fatherland, and we must uphold its independence. Do you want our socialist fatherland to be beaten and to lose its independence? If you do not want this, you must put an end to the backwardness in the shortest possible time and develop a genuine Bolshevik tempo in building up its socialist economy.”From: Stalin, Joseph. J. Stalin: Works July , vol London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1955.This was a matter of absolute urgency, for the pace of Soviet industrialization determined whether the U.S.S.R. would excel internationally or crumble before its enemies.“To slacken the tempo would mean falling behind. And those who fall behind get beaten…We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years. Either we do it or we shall go under.”
4Stalin’s Economic Program Two Components:Industrial RevolutionThe Five Year PlanThe First Five Year Plan ( )The Second Five Year Plan ( )The Third Five Year Plan ( )Agricultural RevolutionCollectivization of Farms
5The Five Year Plan Stalin’s plan for industrializing the Soviet Union The top priority of the Soviet governmentRepealed private ownership permitted under the NEPInstituted a command economy into the Soviet UnionCommand economyAll industry owned by the stateAll industrial development planned by the stateThe state decides what is produced, how much is produced, and where it should be produced.Emphasis was on heavyindustries such as coal, oil,iron, steel, and electricityEmphasis was on exports, notconsumptionFew consumer goods
6The Five Year PlanStep One: Consolidate all industry in the hands of the stateNo private ownership, no personal surplus, no personal profits.By the early 1930s even small shopkeepers and local artisans had been forced into state-supervised cooperatives.Step Two: Build giant plants, mines, and factoriesMassive industrial complex were constructed throughout the USSR , epitome of which was Magnitogorsk (Magnetic Mountain)Step Three: Develop production targets for the USSREach plan set a production target which industries had to meet.Within that industry target, each factory had a production target to meet.These targets were largely unrealistic, hence the need for more and more 5 year plans.
7“Anatolii Skurikhin: Magnitka Under Construction” (1932) Source: Grigori Chudakov, Olga Suslova, and Lilya Ukhtomskaya, eds.: Pioneers of Soviet photography. New York: Thames and Hudson
8Dmitrii Debabov: Construction of Magnitogorsk (1930)Source: Leah Bendavid-Val, editor: Propaganda & Dreams: Photographing the 1930s in the USSR and the US. Zurich and New York: Stemmle Publishers GmbH
9The Five Year Plan The Five Year Plan demanded worker productivity. Three campaigns were designed to ensure high-rates of productivitySocialist CompetitionsShock workersStakhanovite Movement(1935)
10Socialist Competitions Competitions between factories for who could most exceed their production targetsWorkers who signed up for these competitions and who then went on to help their factories secure victory were known as shock workers
11Shock Workers Workers and employees who exceeded their quotas. Received public honor in newspapers and at meetings, received privileged treatment in dining facilities and in the allocation of scarce goods, accommodation, and vacation vouchers.
12Stakhanovite Movement On August 31, 1935 Aleksei Stakhanov, a 33 year old miner, mined 102 tons of coals during a 6 hour shift. This amount represented 14 times his quota.The Soviet government capitalized on this achievement and launched the Stakhanovite movement.Stakhanovite: title given to workers or peasants who set production records that superceded that of shock worker.Stakhanovites were given increased earnings, cars, and praise at national meetings.They were also featured in newspapers and advertisements.They were idealized in all areas (manners, culture, aptitude, and skills)--held up as ideal citizens--not just ideal workers.Designed to demonstrate the prosperity that communism was said to bring to Russia.Video Clip:
13When all else fails, humiliation, labor camp, and/or death… Every factory had large display boards erected that showed the output of workers. Those that failed to reach the required targets were publicity criticized and humiliated.Records were kept of workers' lateness, absenteeism and bad workmanship. If the worker's record was poor, he was accused of trying to sabotage the Five Year Plan and if found guilty could be shot or sent to work as forced labor.
14Effects of the Five Year Plan: Industrial Outputs The Five year plans were successful at modernizing/industrializing RussiaBy 1935, the USSR had a 13% share of the world’s manufacturing, surpassing Great Britain, France, and Germany.In the 1930s, while the rest of Europe and the United States suffered a Great Depression, the Soviet Union had an unemployment rate of 0%.
15Effects of the Five Year Plan: Workers Pay was poorFew consumer goods to purchase with what little money they hadWorking conditions were dangerousHours were longRationing of food
17Agricultural Revolution: Collectivization Stalin believed that if the 5 Year Plan was going to succeed, the factory workers in the urban areas needed to be well-fed.Stalin believed that Russia needed to undergo an Agricultural Revolution in order to achieve three goals:Increase crop yields and thus better feed the industrial workersMechanize agricultural productionEliminate the kulaksRicher farmers who hadmade money under theprivatization allowed bythe NEPRepresented acounterweight to Sovietpower in the villages andhad to be eliminated.
18Collectivization The program Stalin introduced to achieve these goals was collectivization.Collectivization:All small farms would begathered together to formone large massive farm,called collectives.These collectives would use science and machinery toincrease the amount of crops they produced.By 1930, 50% of all farms in the USSR had been collectivizedBy 1938, 90% of all farms in the USSR had been collectivized.
19Arkadii Shishkin: We are for the Kolkhoz Arkadii Shishkin: We are for the Kolkhoz! (1929)Source: Grigori Chudakov, Olga Suslova, and Lilya Ukhtomskaya, eds.: Pioneers of Soviet photography. New York: Thames and Hudson
20Reaction to the Collectives Kulaks were strongly opposed to collectivization.Many kulaks resisted collectivization by killing their animals and destroying their grain so that they could not be taken by Stalin’s secret police.This began an era of almost unparalleled slaughter of farm animals and the systematic destruction of grain.19281934Grain73.3 million tons67.6 million tonsCattle70.5 million42.4 millionPigs26 million22.6 millionSheep and Goats146.7 million51.9 million
21Reaction to the Collectives Stalin called for the “liquidation [of the kulaks] as a class.”Stalin tried to turn the poorer peasants against the kulaks."Look at the kulaks farms : their barns and sheds are crammed with grain. And yet they are holding onto this grain because they are demanding three times the price offered by the government.”Joseph Stalin, speech, 1928Much was made in propagandistic newsreels of “kulak resistance” and successful searches and confiscations carried out by the police and party officials.Those identified as kulaks were subjected to confiscation, deportation, incarceration in labor camps, or execution.Thousands were executed and an estimated 5 million were sent into exile.Video Clips (1 &2):
22Effects of Collectivization: Famine Stalin also viewed collectivization as an opportunity to rid Russia of “undesirable” peasant populations such as those living in the UkraineBetween 1932 and 1933, Stalin ordered the secret police to take all food from Ukrainian peasants and to leave them nothing.The result was a Great Famine (Ukrainian Genocide) in which nearly 5 million Ukrainians diedMeanwhile the government was exporting millions of tons of grain to earn money for industrialization.In total it is estimated that 9 million people died as a result of various famines brought on by collectivization
23Further DiscussionWhere do you see characteristics of totalitarianism in Stalin’s regime?How was the Soviet Union a “nation at war” under the economic policies of Stalin?In what ways were the Five Year Plan and Collectivization actually political programs?In what ways were the Five Year Plan and Collectivization designed to exert panoptic control over the Soviet people?Think about why people went along with the economic programs.