Presentation on theme: "Standards Alignment A study of alignment between state standards and the ACM K-12 Curriculum."— Presentation transcript:
Standards Alignment A study of alignment between state standards and the ACM K-12 Curriculum
ACM Ed Policy Committee Our charge: – “persuading” federal & state governments to adopt standards and assessments that are aligned to a well-defined and accepted Computer Science curriculum leading to a secondary (high school) graduation requirement
ACM Ed Policy Committee The good news? – The curriculum guidelines exist: The bad news? – The rest (standards, assessments, graduation) doesn’t!
CS in the Education Policy Landscape Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) != Computing Often in the T, but a poor fit – Doesn’t technology literacy, technology IN education = computer science knowledge? – Computing in T often focused on the use of technology (e.g., word processing/spread sheets) – Definition of technology is slippery at best – T courses are often focused on vocational ed, not college- bound students
Standards in US Education What are standards? – Defined competencies that provide standardization According to the National Academies Press they: – “Point towards a destination, and give us a road map of how to get there.” National Academies Press, National Science Education Standards, 1996
What are the ACM Standards? 55 Standards for grades K-12 Broken out into Levels – Level 1: Foundations of CS (K-8: 35) (K-2: 12; 3-5: 11; 6-8: 12) – Level 2: CS in Modern World (9-10: 10) – Level 3: CS Analysis & Design (10-11: 10)
Data Collection/Methodology State Departments of Education Math/Science/Technology Standards – Includes CTE, business, or other standards as well Aligned with ACM K-12 Curriculum Light implementation judgment
Why is this optimistic?
Fluency Report Division Contemporary Skills: The abilities necessary to use today's computer applications in one's own work (set up a computer, use a word processor). Intellectual Capabilities: The fundamental abilities necessary for using IT to solve a problem (reason abstractly, manage complexity, anticipate change). Foundational Concepts: The basic ideas that underlie modern computers, networks and information (modeling & abstraction, algorithmic thinking). National Academies Press, Being Fluent with Information Technologies, 1999
Understand the graph as a tool for representing problem states and solutions to complex problems ([LI] 68.11)
Examples (like programming a telephone answering system) that identify the broad interdisciplinary utility of computers and algorithmic problem solving in the modern world. (L2.8)
Fundamental ideas about the process of program design and problem solving, including style, abstraction, and initial discussions of correctness and efficiency as part of the software design process. (L3.1)
Landscape is Changing..
States with Technology Requirement for Graduation
How Does CS Count for Graduation?
Where does this leave us? According to the picture created by the standards, Computer Science is mostly being taught as a series of skills and capabilities where using computers and computer technology are emphasized. There is little consistency between implementations. Only about 1/3 of states require some form of technology literacy for graduation, and often that is an applications course and not a computer science course.
Standards Level I, Foundations of CS (grades K-2) – K2.1 Use Standard I/O – K2.2 Use a computer for learning – K2.3 Communicate about technology – K2.4 Use multimedia to support learning – K2.5 Work cooperatively while using technology – K2.6 Positive social and ethical behaviors – K2.7 Responsible Use – K2.8 Create/Develop appropriate multimedia with support – K2.9 Use Technology resources for problem solving – K2.10 Gather information and communicate with others using technology – K2.11 Understand how 0's and 1's can represent information – K2.12 Understand how to arrange/sort information
Standards Level I, Foundations of CS (grades 3-5) – 35.1 Use I/O and Keyboarding Skills – 35.2 Discuss common uses of technology in daily life – 35.3 Discuss issues about responsible use – 35.4 Use productivity tools – 35.5 Use technology tools (digital cameras, presentation, web, scanner, multimedia) – 35.6 Use telecommunications to get remote information – 35.7 Use online resources for problem solving – 35.8 Use technology resources (calculators, digital probes, videos) for problem solving – 35.9 Select technology tools appropriate for problems – Evaluate accuracy, relevance, of electronic information – Develop an understanding of an algorithm
Standards Level I, Foundations of CS (grades 6-8) – 68.1 Identify and solve routine HW and SW problems – 68.2 Understand changes in IT and their effects – 68.3 Legal and ethical Behaviors – 68.4 Use content-specific tools (calculators, digital probes, web) to support learning – 68.5 Apply productivity and multimedia tools – 68.6 Make products including video, web pages, etc. using technology – 68.7 Collaborate using telecommunications and develop solutions – 68.8 Select appropriate tools and technologies to solve problems – 68.9 Understand hardware, software and algorithms – Evaluate accuracy of electronic information sources – Understand graphs – Fundamentals of Logic
Standards Level II, CS in the Modern World (grades 9-10) – L2.1 Principles of computer organization (I/O, memory, OS, software) – L2.2 Basic Steps in algorithmic problem solving – L2.3 Components of computer networks – L2.4 Organization of Internet elements, web design, search engines – L2.5 Hierarchy and abstraction in CS – L2.6 Connections between CS and Math – L2.7 Computers modeling intelligent behavior and difference between humans and computers – L2.8 Examples of interdisciplinary CS – L2.9 Ethical issues relating to networks, IP and public domain – L2.10 Identification of careers in CS
Standards Level III, CS as Analysis & Design (grades 10-11) – L3.1 Software design process – L3.2 Simple Data Structures and their uses – L3.3 Discrete Mathematics – L3.4 Design for Usability – L3.5 Hardware Design – L3.6 Characteristics of compilers/OS/Networks – L3.7 Limits of Computing – L3.8 Principles of Software Engineering – L3.9 Social Issues – L3.10 Careers in Computing