Presentation on theme: "Dr. Vohra Duodenum Shortest (25cm) part of the small intestine. Joins the stomach to the jejunum. Pursues a C–shaped course around the head of pancreas."— Presentation transcript:
Duodenum Shortest (25cm) part of the small intestine. Joins the stomach to the jejunum. Pursues a C–shaped course around the head of pancreas. Begins at the pylorus on the right side L1. Ends at the duodenojejunal junction on the left (L2). A retroperitoneal structure except 1 st inch. Receives the opening of bile & pancreatic duct.
1. Sup. (1 st part) 5cm--Lies ant. to the body of the L1. 2. Descending (2 nd part) 7- 10cm descends along the side of the L1 – L3. 3. Horizontal (3 rd part) 6-8cm- -crosses the L3. 4. Ascending (4 th part) 5cm -- begins at left of L3 & rises as for as the upper border of L2 Divided into four parts
Begins at the pylorus & runs upward & backward of the 1 st lumbar vertebra Relation Anteriorly Quadrate lobe of the liver & Gall bladder Posteriorly Lesser sac (1 st inch only) gastroduodenal artery, bile duct, & IVC Superiorly Epiploic foramen Inferiorly Head of pancreas First Part
Runs vertically downward in front of the hilum of the right kidney on the right side of the L2 & L3. At posteromedial border, bile & main pancreatic ducts open. The two ducts unite to form the ampulla that opens on the summit of the Major duodenal papilla opening of accessory pancreatic ducts little higher than the Major papilla Minor duodenal papilla Second Part
Anteriorly Fundus of the gall bladder, right lobe of liver, transverse colon, & coils of the small intestine Posteriorly Hilum of the right kidney & right ureter Laterally Ascending colon, right colic flexure& right lobe of liver Medially Head of pancreas, the bile & min pancreatic ducts Relation of the 2 nd part
Runs horizontally to the left on the subcostal plain, passing the vertebral column in front of L3 following the lower margin of pancreas Relation Anteriorly Mesentery of small intestine, SMA, SMV, coils of jejunum Posteriorly Right ureter, right psoas muscle, IVC & aorta Superiorly Head of pancreas Inferiorly Coils of jejunum Third Part
Runs upward along the left side of the aorta & curves ant to join jejunum forms an acute angle duodenojejunal flexure The flexure is held in position by a peritoneal fold the ligament of Treitz which is attached to the right curse of the diaphragm, fixes the terminal part of the duodenum and prevents it from moving inferiorly Fourth Part
Relation Anteriorly Root mesentery & coils of jejunum Posteriorly Left margin of aorta & medial border of left psoas
Mucous Membrane and Duodenal Papillae Mucus membrane is thick. In the first part of the duodenum it is smooth. In the remainder of the duodenum it is thrown into numerous circular folds called the plicae circularis
Arteries The upper half is supplied by the sup pancreaticoduodenal artery br of gastroduodenal artery. The lower half is supplied by the inf pancreaticoduodenal artery br of SMA Veins Sup pancreaticoduodenal artery into portal & inf pancreaticoduodenal drains into SMA
Nerve Supply Sympathetic & parasympathetic (vagus) nerves from celiac & superior mesenteric plexuses
Clinical Notes Trauma to the duodenum In severe injury to ant abdominal wall, the 3 rd part May be severely crushed against the L3 Duodenal Ulcer An ant ulcer of the 1 st inch of 1 st part may perforate into greater sac and the fluid my go to the right iliac fossa. In this case the differential diagnoses b/w a perforated duodenal ulcer & perforated appendix may be difficult Duodenal Recesses Close to the duodenojejunal junction, there may be four small pocketlike pouches of peritoneum called the superior duodenal, inferior duodenal, paraduodenal and retroduodenal recesses Important Duodenal Relation Gallstone may ulcerate the duodenum
Location The pancreas is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. Lies in epigastrium & left upper quadrant. Soft & lobulated situated on the post abdominal wall Is a retroperitoneal structure Crosses the transpyloric plain Divided into four parts Head, Neck, Body & Tail Pancreas Tail Head Neck Body
Pancreas Head of the pancreas Is disc shaped lies within the concavity of duodenum A part from head extends to the left behind the SMA is called UNCINATE PROCESS Neck of the pancreas Constricted portion of pancreas connects head to the body Body of the pancreas Runs upward & to the left across the midline Tail of the pancreas Passes forward in the splenicorenal ligament & comes in contact with the hilum of the spleen
Relation of the pancreas Anteriorly from right to left Transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, lesser sac & stomach Posteriorly from right to left Bile duct, portal & splenic veins, IVF, aorta, origin of SMA, left psoas muscle, left suprarenal gland, left kidney, & hilum of the spleen
The main pancreatic duct begins in the tail and runs the length of the gland, receiving numerous tributaries on its way. It opens into the 2 nd part of the duodenum at about its middle with the bile duct on the major duodenal papilla. Sometimes the main duct drains separately into the duodenum. Pancreatic Ducts The accessory pancreatic duct if present, drains the upper part of the head, opens into the duodenum a short distance above the main duct on the minor duedenal pappila. The accessory duct frequently communicates with the main duct.
Blood Supply Arteries The splenic and the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries supply the pancreas. Veins The corresponding veins drain into the portal system. Lymph Drainage Lymph nodes are situated along the arteries that supply the gland. The efferent vessels ultimately drain into the celiac and superior mesenteric lymph nodes. Nerve Supply Sympathetic and parasympathetic (vagal) nerve fibers supply the area.
Diagnosis of Pancreatic Disease The deep location of the pancreas sometimes gives rise to problem of diagnosis for the following reasons Pain from the pancreas is commonly referred to the back. Because the pancreas lies behind the stomach and transverse colon, disease of the gland can be confused with that of the stomach or transverse colon. Inflammation of the pancreas can spread to the peritoneum forming the posterior wall of the lesser sac. This in turn can lead to adhesions and the closing off of the lesser sac to form a pseudocyst.