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Apprenticeship and Progression: opportunities and challenges for policy and practice ESRC HIVE-PED Seminar 4, 10 October 2014 Professor Alison Fuller

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Presentation on theme: "Apprenticeship and Progression: opportunities and challenges for policy and practice ESRC HIVE-PED Seminar 4, 10 October 2014 Professor Alison Fuller"— Presentation transcript:

1 Apprenticeship and Progression: opportunities and challenges for policy and practice ESRC HIVE-PED Seminar 4, 10 October 2014 Professor Alison Fuller 1 1

2 Policy Background Longstanding concern intermediate (L3/4/5) achievement (OECD 2013) – ‘hourglass’ skills profile (competitiveness) Growing international interest in alternative progression routes for young people “So our fourth national goal is that as many young people leaving school should be able to do apprenticeships as currently go to university.” Ed Milliband Labour conference Sept 2014 EU push to increase LM flexibility and mobility – EQF, increasing emphasis on ‘permeability’ and progression Dynamic interplay between policies creates interesting outcomes eg ‘fall in top A-level applicants gives BTEC entrants a boost’ (THE 25 Sept 2014) ABB+ entrants fall by 3%, BTEC ABB+ equivalent entrants rise by 16%

3 Rethinking Progression ‘Broken Promise’ – ‘Talent War’ (Brown et al 2011) ‘Reverse Transfer’ (Wilson 2009, Moodie 2004, Bethune 1977) Doppel-Qualification (Pilz 2009) ‘Hybrid qualifications’ (Deissinger et al - Apprenticeship + ‘A-level’ Aff et al 2013) Higher Apprenticeships but importance of intermediate rungs 3

4 Summary Statistics (Age group): England 510,000 - all age apprenticeship starts in 2012/ ,300 (45% of all starts) ,400 (32% of all starts) Under ,500 (22% of all starts) So apprenticeship is currently not a predominantly school leaver programme

5 Gender and Age Older age groups % female % female Younger age groups Under % female % female Older apprentices more likely to be female

6 Age and Level 71% of starts in the Under 19 group are in a L2 programme 60% of starts in the group are in a L2 programme 49% of starts in the 25+ group are in a L2 programme Older apprentices more likely to be starting a L3+ programme (gateway to HE)

7 Complexity and progression Diversity in VQ type, size, structure, mode of delivery – qualifications/frameworks positioned as L3 but limited standardisation Intensity, duration, assessment methods, qualification currency Often unclear articulation/credit recognition, currency for University entrance (FD vs bachelor) Many L3 VQs not in UCAS tariff -QCF low L3 threshold and academic qualifications not in it Variable use (ability to do real work tasks) and exchange value (transparent currency for achieving external progression) 7

8 Expansive Platform for Progression Intermediate/technician level roles require knowledgable, skilled and qualified practitioners Potential to develop (higher) intermediate level vocational provision – importance of partnerships Importance of transparent articulation with professional qualification ladders and registration, HEQ framework Value of intermediate ‘hybrid’ programmes with currency for access to bachelor degrees, and skilled employment High use and exchange value provides an expansive platform for progression Some L3 examples… 8

9 Aeronautical engineering Min 240 QCF credits required to complete framework – way more than 37 credit QCF threshold Various qualification options generate the credits required to complete framework – use value But only one qualification ‘BTEC L3 Diploma’ generates UCAS points (range ) – exchange value 9

10 GDC approved curricula and qualifications include BTEC Extended Dip (L3) FT/PT routes, fully equipped dental workshop, dual professional tutors Qualification accrues significant UCAS pts Work placement (FT) or employment (PT) in registered dental lab essential Dental Technician: Pathway to progression

11 Dental Technicians: established currency In family of occupations regulated by GDC, statutory register, protected title Title has strong resonance linked to distinctive occupational identity Pathway & outcomes lead to registration, licence to practise, qual. portability Strong platform for progression to HE & career progression and portability High use and exchange value 11

12 L3 qualifications e.g. Diploma in Maternity and Paediatric Support, NVQ3 Ability of work-based route to prepare for higher level study Competing for places against applicants with A levels Weak platform for progression to degree (no UCAS points), inc. those approved for clinical registration Creates more restrictive platform for progression Healthcare support: Pathway to progression?

13 Healthcare Support: pathway or cul de sac? Unregistered (non-statutory) occupation- no standard qualification for ‘getting in’ or ‘getting on’ Locally (employer) determined job role & band, & level of training & qualifications required in workplace Framework L3 quals have limited exchange value for HE & career progression – hurdle of crossing non-registered/registered divide High use value, low exchange value 13

14 Trailblazer Reform: example Aerospace manufacturing fitter (occupational labour market) (http://www.apprenticeships.org.uk/~/media/Apprentic eship) -standards/Aerospace.ashxhttp://www.apprenticeships.org.uk/~/media/Apprentic eship End point assessment and sign off There will be an assessment at the end of the development phase where the apprentice will need to demonstrate full competence against the knowledge, skills and behaviours in this standard. On completion of the employer ‘sign off’ apprentices will be certified by a recognised industry endorsed third party. 14

15 Cont. Recognition The apprenticeship is designed to be recognised by the Institution of Engineering & Technology (IET), The Royal Aeronautical Society and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers at ‘Engineering Technician’ Level. Level and Review – This Apprenticeship standard is at level 3 (equivalent to A levels) Assessment Plan (http://www.apprenticeships.org.uk/~/media/Apprenticeship-standards/AP%20- Manufacturing%20Fitter%20Aerospace%20Assessment%20Plan.ashx)http://www.apprenticeships.org.uk/~/media/Apprenticeship-standards/AP%20- Manufacturing%20Fitter%20Aerospace%20Assessment%20Plan.ashx High use and exchange value for occupation, employment and professional progression – less explicit exchange value in terms of HE entrance 15

16 Emerging Issues Continued separation of educational providers from certification and qualification (socio- political imperative?) Challenges of getting in and getting on in (David Marsden’s 2007/10 ‘entry tournaments’) - linked to decoupling of learning outcomes from qualifications Ongoing tensions between individuals’ and employers’ priorities, general versus specific attainment (Alison Wolf 1997) The quest for currency in times of mass HE participation and globalised economy 16

17 References Bethune, S. (1977) Retooling the college graduate. Community College Review, 4: 36–40. Brown, P., Lauder, H. and Ashton, D. (2011) The global auction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Deissinger, T., Aff, J. Fuller, A. and Helmensen, CH (2013) Hybrid qualifications: structures and problems in the context of European vet policy, Zurich: Peter Lang Fuller, A. and Unwin, L. (2012) Banging on the door of the university: The Complexities of Progression from Apprenticeship and other Vocational Programmes in England, Monograph 14, Oxford: SKOPE Fuller, A. and Unwin, L. (2004) Expansive Learning Environments: Integrating Organisational and Personal Development, pp , 2004, in H. Rainbird, A. Fuller and A. Munro (eds) Workplace Learning in Context, London: Routledge Fuller, A., Turbin, J., Unwin, L., Guile, D. and Wintrup, J. (2013) Technician and Intermediate Roles in the Healthcare Sector, London: Gatsby Charitable Foundation Fuller, A., and Unwin, L. (2013) Apprenticeship and the concept of occupation, London: Gatsby Foundation Pilz, M. (2009) Why Abiturienten do an apprenticeship before going to university: The role of 'double qualifications' in Germany. Oxford Review of Education, 35(2): 187–204 Turbin, J., Fuller, A. and Wintrup, J. (2014) Apprenticeship and progression in the healthcare sector: can labour market theory illuminate barriers and opportunities in contrasting occupations?, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 66, 2, Wilson, D.N. (2009) ‘Reverse transfer’ constraints upon planning post-secondary programs in Ontario, Canada. in L. R. Raby and E. J. Valeau (Eds), Community college models. Dordrecht: Springer. 17


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