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Update of ILC Tracker Alignment Based on Frequency Scanned Interferometry University of Michigan ILC Group (Hai-Jun Yang, Alexander Harvey Nitz, Eui Min.

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Presentation on theme: "Update of ILC Tracker Alignment Based on Frequency Scanned Interferometry University of Michigan ILC Group (Hai-Jun Yang, Alexander Harvey Nitz, Eui Min."— Presentation transcript:

1 Update of ILC Tracker Alignment Based on Frequency Scanned Interferometry University of Michigan ILC Group (Hai-Jun Yang, Alexander Harvey Nitz, Eui Min Jung, Keith Riles) ALCPG Workshop, Fermilab October 22-26, 2007

2 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment2 Outline  Brief reminder of Frequency Scanned Interferometry (FSI) method  Review of improvements & measurements of FSI demonstration system Implementation of dual-laser technique Results of measurements – estimated precision Cross checks  Preliminary simulation results: Impact of silicon ladder distortion on charged track momentum reconstruction  Ongoing work Miniaturization Multiple channels Detailed simulation based on FSI line-of-sight grid constraint

3 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment3 Overview of FSI Method Measure hundreds of absolute point-to-point distances of tracker elements in 3 dimensions by using an array of optical beams split from a central laser. Absolute distances are determined by scanning the laser frequency and counting interference fringes. Grid of reference points overdetermined  Infer tracker distortions Technique pioneered by Oxford U. group for ATLAS SCT detector

4 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment4 A Possible SiD Tracker Alignment 752 point-to-point distance measurements ( Goal: σ distance < 1 μm )

5 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment5 Principle of Distance Measurement The measured distance can be expressed by + constant end corrections c - speed of light,  N – No. of fringes,  - scanned frequency n g – average refractive index of ambient atmosphere Assuming the error of refractive index is small, the measured precision is given by: (  R / R) 2 = (   N /  N) 2 + (   v /  ) 2 Example: R = 1.0 m,  = 6.6 THz,  N ~ 2R  /c = To obtain  R  1.0  m, Requirements:   N ~ 0.02,   v ~ 3 MHz

6 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment6 Background Previous reports:  FSI I – Single-laser demonstration with air transport of beam  FSI II – Single-laser measurements with fiber transport  Results published in Applied Optics, 44, (2005) Results (~ 50 nm) well within desired precision, but only for well controlled laboratory conditions  FSI III – Dual-laser measurements with fiber transport  Results published in Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A575, 395(2007) More realistic detector conditions (~ 200 nm)

7 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment7 Measured Distances: 10 cm – 60 cm Distance Precision : ~ 50 nm by using multiple-distance measurement technique under well controlled laboratory conditions. Vibration Measurement: Hz, amplitude as low as few nanometers, can be extracted precisely using new vibration extraction technique. Publication: “High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement with frequency scanned interferometry”, [Physics/ ] H.J. Yang, J. Deibel, S. Nyberg, K. Riles, Applied Optics, 44, , (2005) Background Controlled Conditions

8 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment8 “Real World” Cannot count on precisely controlled conditions in ILC detector tracker. Thermal fluctuations and drifts likely  Refraction index and inferred distance affected Can measure temperature, pressure, humidity, etc. and apply empirical formulae, but preferable to measure effects directly and cancel these effects Use dual-laser technique (Invented by Oxford ATLAS group):  Two independent lasers alternately chopped  Frequency scanning over same range but with opposite slope

9 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment9 Dual-Laser FSI (III) Two Lasers Two Choppers  A dual-laser FSI (Oxford ATLAS method) has been implemented with optical choppers. Laser #1: D 1 = D true + Ω 1  1 Laser #2: D 2 = D true + Ω 2  2 Drift errors:  1   2 =  D true = (D 2 -  D 1 ) / (1 -  ), Where  = Ω 2 / Ω 1

10 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment10 Fringes & F-P Peaks (dual-laser) Laser-1 Laser-2 Chopper edge effects and low photodiode duty cycle per laser complicate measurement.

11 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment11 Distance Measurement Precision  Distance Measurement Precision (~ cm) Laser #1 or #2 only : Precision (RMS) = 3 ~ 7 microns  Combining multi-distance-measurement and dual-laser scanning techniques to reduce and cancel interference fringe uncertainties, vibration and drift errors Dual-laser precision (RMS) ~ 0.20 microns under realistic conditions  A 2nd report: “High-precision absolute distance measurement using dual-laser frequency scanned interferometry under realistic conditions”, [Physics/ ], Nucl. Inst. & Meth. A575, 395(2007)

12 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment12 FSI Cross Checks  Used a Micrometer to change the position of retroreflector by large amount (127+/- 3 microns), and check FSI performance. The measurement precision is ~ 0.5 microns with unstable temperature.  Used a Piezoelectric transducer (PZT, 20% tolerance) to change the position of the retroreflector by 2.0 +/- 0.4 microns. The measurement precision is ~ 0.1 microns with stable temperature.  To verify correct tracking of large thermal drifts, we placed a heating pad on a 1’ x 2’ x 0.5’’ Al breadboard to increase temperature by 4 ~ 7 o C. The measured thermal expansions agree well with expectations, the measurement precision is ~ 0.2 microns.

13 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment13 Miniaturization Previously used large commercial optics: Retroreflector (Diameter ~ 1’’) Beam splitter (Diameter ~ 1’’) Need miniaturized, low-X 0 components for actual tracker Obtained customized fabrication quotes for retroreflectors (3~4 mm) from rapid prototyping companies.

14 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment14 Miniaturization  Cheap prototype alternatives: a bicycle reflector: (all but one pixel masked off) Measurement precision for a distance of 18 cm: ~ 0.4 μm Promising indication, given simple design of the reflector pixels ( solid plastic corner cubes with no coating, but low reflective efficiency )

15 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment15 Miniaturization  Now using Edmund corner cube array, 9 X 9 hexagon corner cubes in 35 mm X 35 mm. Center-to-center spacing of two adjacent corner cubes is ~ 4 mm.  The reflective efficiency of single corner cube is comparable to large commercial corner cube and hollow retroreflector ( D = 1 inch ).  High reflective efficiency is vital to make qualified fringes and to make more channels.  Under controlled conditions L = / microns  The corner cube array has high reflective efficiency and qualified fringes. It’s very promising.

16 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment16 We are implementing multi-channels fed by an optical fiber splitter  Double-check systematics  Implement multiple distance measurements and test over- constrained algorithm for a prototype set of reference points  Preparation for test of silicon ladder prototype alignment Multiple channels Results not ready yet !

17 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment17 Simulation  To evaluate the impact of distortion of silicon ladder on charged track momentum reconstruction/measurement.  Integrated track generation, reconstruction and FSI fitting  Inputs: charged track with given momentum, 5 silicon layers based on nominal SiD design, magnetic field B = 5 Tesla. -- Assume spatial resolution is 7 microns for hits. -- Distortions: rotations, translations, thermal expansion or contractions of silicon ladders. -- Applying FSI line-of-sight grid constraint (code not fully debugged – premature to show results, but consistent with earlier simulations.)  Outputs: reconstructed momentum of charged track, event displays for SiD Tracker

18 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment18 Example Tracks (side view) Can zoom in on specific locations

19 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment19 Normal (  = 7 microns for hits) P true = 100 GeV, hit smearing ~ 7 microns P rec -P true (GeV)

20 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment20 Normal (  = 20 microns for hits) P true = 100 GeV, hit smearing ~ 20 microns P rec -P true (GeV)

21 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment21 Translation of Silicon Ladder (Middle) P true = 100 GeV, shift ~ 1 micron P rec -P true (GeV)

22 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment22 Translation of Silicon Ladder (Middle) P true = 100 GeV, shift ~ 10 microns P rec -P true (GeV)

23 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment23 Translation of Silicon Ladder (Middle) P true = 100 GeV, shift ~ 100 microns P rec -P true (GeV)

24 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment24 Translation of Silicon Ladder (Middle) P true = 100 GeV, shift ~ microns P rec -P true (GeV)

25 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment25 Rotation of Silicon Ladder (Middle) P true = 100 GeV, Rotate ~ 1*10 -6 rad P rec -P true (GeV)

26 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment26 Rotation of Silicon Ladder (Middle) P true = 100 GeV, Rotate ~ 1*10 -5 rad P rec -P true (GeV)

27 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment27 Rotation of Silicon Ladder (Middle) P true = 100 GeV, Rotate ~ 1*10 -4 rad P rec -P true (GeV)

28 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment28 Summary  Several FSI demonstration systems with increasing realism have been implemented  Results on achievable measurement precision are quite promising (~ 0.2 microns with dual-laser scanning)  Published Results Hai-Jun Yang, Sven Nyberg, Keith Riles, " High-precision Absolute Distance Measurement using Dual-Laser Frequency Scanned Interferometry Under Realistic Conditions ", Nucl. Instrum. & Meth. A575 (2007) Nucl. Instrum. & Meth. A575 (2007) Hai-Jun Yang, Jason Deibel, Sven Nyberg, Keith Riles, " High-precision absolute distance and vibration measurement using frequency scanned interferometry", Applied Optics, Vol.44 (2005) Applied Optics, Vol.44 (2005)

29 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment29 Summary  Ongoing work:  Miniaturization: baseline retroreflector is plexiglass, but want to investigate other materials (constrained by available prototyping funds)  Multiple channels: dual-channel system nearly ready  Simulations: integrated framework nearly complete, early results seem promising

30 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment30 Backup Slides

31 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment31 Fringe Interpolating Technique 5 FSRs Fringe phase = I+  IFringe phase = J+  J Fringe correction (N_corr) must satisfy: minimize | N_corr+(J+  J)-(I+  I)-N_average | Where, N_corr is integer number, N_average is expected average fringe numbers (real) for the given number of FSRs. Expected fringes for 5 FSRs Laser #1 data with chopperLaser #1 data without chopper

32 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment32 Distance Measurement Precision Dual-Laser FSI Data Samples – Under Realistic Conditions * with box open(20 scans), with fan on (10 scans), with vibration(8 scans). * Scanning rates for Laser #1 and #2 are -0.4 and 0.4 nm/s, respectively. * Scanning time is 25 seconds, sampling rate is 100 KS/s. * Two lasers are operated simultaneously, 2-blade chopper frequency is 20 Hz.

33 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment33 FSI Cross Checks  Used a Micrometer to change the position of retroreflector by large amount (127+/- 3 microns), and check FSI performance. Laser #1, 5 full scan data for each independent test. dR1 = / microns dR2 = / microns dR3 = / microns dR4 = / microns  Used a Piezoelectric transducer (PZT, 20% tolerance) to change the position of the retroreflector by 2.0 +/- 0.4 microns. Laser #1, 5 full scans for each test. dR5 = / microns dR6 = / microns Single-laser scans – unstable temps Single-laser scans – stable temps

34 - FSI for ILC Tracker Alignment34 FSI Thermal Test To verify correct tracking of large thermal drifts, we placed a heating pad on a 1’ X 2’ X 0.5’’ Aluminum breadboard  Test 1: increased temperature by 6.7 +/- 0.1 o C dR_expected = /- 0.9 microns dR_measured = / microns  Test 2: increased temperature by 6.9 +/- 0.1 o C dR_expected = /- 0.9 microns dR_measured = / microns  Test 3: increased temperature by 4.3 +/- 0.1 o C dR_expected = /- 0.9 microns dR_measured = / microns  Test 4: increased temperature by 4.4 +/- 0.1 o C dR_expected = /- 0.9 microns dR_measured = / microns Dual-laser scans  closed box


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