Chp. 7 Section 1 Physical Geography Physical Features: - Coast Mountains, Rocky Mountains extend into Canada. - Broad plains stretch across interior - Appalachian Mountains extend into South east Canada. ● Canadian Shield- a region of rocky uplands, borders Hudson Bay.
Physical Geography Canada’s most fertile soil, St. Lawrence River valley and Great lakes region. (Great Lakes) – Erin, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, Superior Canada has 1000s of lakes and rivers carved by Ice Age glaciers. Two Larger Lakes = The Great Bear The Great Slave St. Lawrence River links great lakes to Atlantic ocean.
Two largest lakes of Canada The Great Bear The Great Slave
Climate Central and Eastern = Humid Subtropical Southwest = Marine West Coast Climate Winters – rainy and heavy snowfall in mountains. Central and Northern = Subarctic Climate Far North = Tundra and Ice-cap Climate Permafrost = underlies ½ of canada.
Resources Atlantic and Pacific Coasts = World richest fishing area. Lakes and Stream = Tourism Wheat and Cattle
Resources cont. ● The Canadian Shield – contains minerals Leading Source of world’s Nickel Zinc Uranium ● Other minerals mined - Lead Copper Gold Silver Coal Saskatchewan = world’s largest deposit of Potash= mineral used to make fertilizer
Resources cont. Alberta = Oil and Natural gas Labrador= Pacific coast Coniferous forest. Lumber Pulp= soften wood fibers, used to make paper Newsprint= cheaper paper used for newspapers
Section 2 History and Culture Canadian’s first Nations before European Settlement. Cree Mohawk Dene Ojibwa 1 st European Settlement AD 1000 Vikings Norse Settlements failed/abandoned?
European Settlement Late 1400s Western European began crossing Atlantic - brought smallpox killing many - mixing with cultures. Europeans - hunted & trapped for furs - traded metal goods to natives kettles & axes Natives and Europeans began to adopt others culture.- Foods, Clothing, Means of transportation
New France France was 1 st European country to successfully settle parts of Canada Quebec City founded 1608 French called new territory New France. Eastern Canada & central U.S.
Importance to France Spread France’s Culture & Religion Important commercial area for France’s empire French built trade & diplomatic relations with American Indians New France ► Furs & Fish ► French Emp. French Emp. ► Manufactured goods ► New France
New France French missionaries tried to convert natives to Christianity. New France Lasted 150yrs. Until conquered by British. ¼ of present day Canadian population are of French ancestry.
British Conquest The Seven Years War (1753-63) mainly fought in Europe (French &Indian) - British took control of New France - Quebec- French settlers stayed even- though many went back to France Canada divided into 2 colonies Lower → French Speaking Upper → English speaking Nova Scotia divided New Brunswick French British Loyalist
Creation of Canada British Parliament created Dominion of Canada 1867 “From sea to sea” * Dominion – a territory or area of influence 1885 British Columbia and Prince Edward Island *Metis (may-tees)- people mixed European & Native ancestry, considered themselves a separate group.
Creation of Canada Expanded north, land bought by Hudson’s Bay Company (British fur trading business) Manitoba becomes province 1870 Alberta & Saskatchewan 1905
Canadian Government Federation Central Government led by a Prime Minister (Stephen Harper) 10 Provincial Governments led by Premier (Governors) Canada’s Central Government = U.S. Federal Government Provincial Government = U.S. State Gov.
Culture British Isles origin 28% French origin 23% Other European 15% Canadian Indian 2% Mixed 26% Other, mostly Asian 6% African, Arab
Immigration Late 1800s-Early 1900s -Many immigrants from Europe - farmed, worked in mines, forests, and factories British Columbia 1 st province to have substantial Asian minority. Many Chinese Canadians helped to build Rail Roads. After WW2 mid 1940’s Immigrants from Europe, Africa, Caribbean's, Latin America and Asia
Natural Resources Quebec, New Brunswick, Ontario produce – Wheat Pulp- wood fibers Paper-newsprint British Columbia, Ontario produce -- Minerals Hydroelectricity
Section 3 Regionalism English- main language in most of Canada French- Quebec dominant language. * Regionalism- refers to the strong connection that people feel toward their region. Quebec- Quebecois (Kay-buh-kwah) believe their province should be given a special status Argue this status would recognize the cultural difference between their province and rest of Canada
Regionalism organizer Hidden slide Regionalism Quebecois believe Quebec should have special status Some Quebecois want independence for Quebec English speaking Canadians believe there are too many privileges already for Quebec Other provinces, particularly in western Canada, want more freedom from national control.
Eastern Provinces Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Newfoundland
Eastern Provinces (Maritime Provinces) Prince Edward Island - small island Nova Scotia- penninsula New Brunswick – coast on the Gulf of St Lawrence and Bay of Fundy Newfoundland- island of Newfoundland, large region of mainland Labrador (usually not considered, maritime province)
Eastern Provinces Economy Short growing season, poor soil = farming difficult Most of regions economy related to Industrial Plants Forest (lumber) Fishing
Quebec Capital of Province -- Montreal- 2 nd largest city -- Largest French speaking -- 3.3 Million in population -- Financial & Industrial Center Very cold Winters.
Ontario Leading Manufacturing Province Most populous ( large population) Toronto = capital of Ontario = Major center of Education Industry & Finance & Culture Population made up of people from = China, Europe,& India Ottawa = Canada’s Capital = citizens speak English & French
Western Provinces British Columbia Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba
Western Provinces The Prairie Provinces Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta Economy --Major farming region --Southern grasslands part of rich Wheat Belt, produces more wheat than Canadians need, rest is exported Alberta -- Oil & Natural Gas -- Tourism Rocky Mountains Major Cities -Edmonton, Calgary, Winnipeg
British Columbia Westernmost Province Mountainous Natural resources – Forest (lumber) Fishing (salmon) Minerals Population of 4 million,1/2 live in city of Vancouver- Multicultural city large Chinese & Indian population Major Trade Center
Canadian North Northern Lands Yukon Territory, Northwest Territory, Nunavut (noo-nah-vuht) Nunavut – created for Inuit (Eskimo) – means “Our Land” Part of Canada's government, but has own local government. These 3 territories cover 1/3 of Canada Population of only 100,000 Boreal Forests, Tundra and frozen Artic Ocean