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Creating World Peace & Prosperity ■After WW2 –world powers addressed global economy & peace-keeping: –International Monetary Fund World Bank –International.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating World Peace & Prosperity ■After WW2 –world powers addressed global economy & peace-keeping: –International Monetary Fund World Bank –International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating World Peace & Prosperity ■After WW2 –world powers addressed global economy & peace-keeping: –International Monetary Fund World Bank –International Monetary Fund & World Bank were created –United Nations –United Nations replaced League of Nations in 1945 US hoped to continue trade dominance in Western Euro, Asia, & Latin Am US was largest supplier of funds for both, so US had greatest control over policy

2 All member nations represented in the General Assembly US, USSR, UK, France, & China permanent members of Security Council Each of the 5 Executive Council nations has absolute veto power An army!

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4 The Beginning of the Cold War ■Cold War – era of distrust, threat of nuclear war, & ideological expansion between US & USSR: –US-Soviet tensions heightened at Yalta & Potsdam WW2 conferences Stalin agreed to allow self-determination in Eastern Europe…but never did

5 The Cold War Begins ■July 1945: Truman met Stalin at Potsdam to discuss post-war Europe & ending the war with Japan “I can work with Stalin…he is honest—but smart as [heck].” Truman was a “Wilsonian idealist” & hoped for intl cooperation Stalin had ruled Russia for 2 decades, was a cautious realist, & believed the USSR needed to protect itself

6 Cold War Divisions Yalta: Stalin agreed to self- determination in E Euro Potsdam: Stalin extended control over E Euro to create buffer b/w USSR & future enemies UK, France, US & USSR didn’t agree on German war reparations, Germany divided into occupied zones at Potsdam Potsdam presented a major Cold War theme: Because they could not agree on how do govern Europe, Truman & Stalin divided it Potsdam was conclusion of WW2’s US-Soviet alliance

7 Withholding Economic Aid ■USSR was badly damaged & needed help rebuilding –FDR/Truman declined loans & ended Lend-Lease aid –Stalin took factories in E Euro & Manchuria –USSR slowly recovered but hostility & antagonism deepened

8 Capitalism & Democracy Communism & Totalitarianism The Iron Curtain 1940s: US began to view Stalin as a new Hitler—dangerous threat & aggressive dictator desiring world domination

9 Containment Containment ■HST’s Sec of State George Marshall began policy of Containment in 1947 –Strong resistance to USSR would stop expansion & spread of communism –US initiated containment in 3 phases: Truman Plan, Marshall Plan, NATO “long-term, patient but firm, and vigilant containment of Russian expansionist policies…will not lead to any immediate victory but will eventually force the USSR to live in peace with the West”

10 The Truman Doctrine ■Soviet pressure on Greece & Turkey led to fears of communism on 3 continents ■Truman Doctrine ■Truman Doctrine: US offered assistance to any nation threatened by Communism Commitment to stopping spread of communism was viewed by USSR as informal declaration of a cold war

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12 The Marshall Plan ■Euro had trouble recovering post WW2 – led to fears of communist coups ■Marshall Plan ■Marshall Plan offered aid to help in recovery –Industry revived / W Euro became bonanza for US trade –“Communist threat” ended

13 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe Stalin refused to accept Marshall Plan aid in USSR or any Soviet satellite / responded with Molotov Plan in E Euro

14 NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization ■1949: Fears of Soviet aggression led to North Atlantic Treaty Organization –Collective security for W Euro, US, Canada, Greece, & Turkey –Cold War was: Ideological (Truman Doctrine) Economic (Marshall Plan) Military (NATO) Major departure from traditional US policy of isolationism

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16 USSR responded in 1955 with formation of Warsaw Pact NATO initiated as result of 1948 Soviet coup in Czechoslovakia

17 The Berlin Blockade ■1948: USSR cut off traffic to Berlin in E Germany ■Truman: –Allowed food/fuel/supplies to be airlifted into W Berlin –Moved several bombers to England –Standoff lasted 2 wks until Stalin lifted the blockade

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20 Here comes help!

21 The Cold War Expands

22 The Military Dimension ■1947: 3 new agencies created so US could identify & respond to security threats –Dept of Defense –Dept of Defense (now w/Air Force) –Central Intelligence Agency –National Security Council Air Force was preferred military agency of Cold War b/c of ability to deliver nuclear bombs & deter enemy attacks

23 The Nuclear Arms Race US monopoly on nuclear weapon technology ended – USSR successfully tested their own atomic bomb Soviet testing of atomic bomb motivated US to regain advantage 1952: US tested 1st hydrogen bomb (1000x more powerful than a-bomb) The Soviets responded with their own h-bomb in 1953

24 The Cold War in Asia ■By 1952, Asia also divided: –After WW2, US helped build alliance & democracy in Japan –1949: Truman “lost” China Mao Zedong defeated Chiang Kai-shek & Kuomintang –1950: China signed mutual assistance treaty with USSR US refused to recognize Communist China Continued diplomatic relations with Nationalists in Taiwan

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26 Based upon this chart, why were Mao & the Communists so popular among the Chinese people? Chinese Communist propaganda What message does this poster project? Notice the sun Notice the Chinese people Chinese Communist propaganda Who might this poster appeal to? Industrial workers Loyal communists Farmers Women

27 Chinese Civil WarVS. Nationalist Leader Chiang Kai-shek (Kuomintang) Communist Leader Mao Zedong

28 The Military Dimension NSC-68 ■1950: NSC created new defense plan NSC-68: –Communism “fanatical” “permanent” threat to US & the world –Don’t just contain communism – also liberate communist countries –Expand US military, stockpile nukes, & use covert operations NSC-68 responded to Soviet development of atomic bomb & “loss” of China to communism This policy paper became “blueprint” for Cold War / shaped US actions for next 20 years NSC-68 was military, economic, political & psychological examination of USSR & China to develop appropriate US responses to threats 3 mos later, assessment appeared correct: N Korea attacked S Korea; US military buildup began

29 The Korean War ■Showdown b/w US & USSR in Asia came in Korea: –PostWW2: Korea divided at 38°N –NK attacked across border in 1950 –UN condemned NK & sent troops 90% were from US Gen Douglas MacArthur Stalin & Mao approved of attack, but Stalin warned: “If you should get kicked in the teeth, I shall not lift a finger. You have to ask Mao for help.”

30 North Korean Invasion June- September 1950 United Nations Counter-Attack September- October 1950 Chinese Advance October- January 1951 Truman unable to end Korean War Eisenhower made Korean War a campaign issue in 1952

31 The Korean War ■MacArthur wanted to unify Korea –Also wanted to invade China –Truman feared WW3, ordered him to stop ■MacArthur went to gov officials, media & public to get support ■Truman fired him for insubordination

32 Korean War ■Stalemate –Armistice signed 1953 –Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) established –War never officially ended – soldiers still there

33 Armistice January July 1953

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37 The Cold War at Home

38 ■Truman’s domestic policy not as successful as his foreign policy –Prices too high & supply too low on new consumer goods –Unions struck – demanded share of wartime profits –1946 mid-terms: GOP took HR & S “Had enough?” “To err is Truman” GOP Congress replaced Wagner Act with Taft-Hartley Act: Forced union members to swear anti- communist oath Outlawed most closed shops

39 The Cold War at Home ■1948: reelection seemed remote –HST faced strong opposition from: Repub Thomas Dewey Progressive Henry Wallace “Dixiecrat” Strom Thurmond –“FDR coalition” of farmers, labor, urban, black voters held strong He attacked the “do-nothing” Republicans He reminded voters that the Democrats ended the Depression The Republicans couldn’t attack Truman’s Cold War successes

40 Truman and the Fair Deal Fair Deal ■HST Fair Deal tried to extend New Deal: –  min wage & Soc Sec benefits –National heath insurance –Fair Employment Practices Comm: End discrimination against blacks ■GOP & southern Dems blocked all Fair Deal legislation

41 The Loyalty Issue ■Fear of radicals is recurrent theme in US history ■1940s & 50s: fears of Commies grew ■: –Fall of China to communism –Successful testing of atomic bomb by USSR –Discovery of American spies –Fear of an unseen conspiracy Federalists in 1790s used Alien & Sedition Acts Red Scare after WW1 aimed at radicals & foreigners Know-Nothings attacked foreigners in 1850s

42 The Loyalty Issue 2 nd Red Scare ■Fear of Commies abroad led to 2 nd Red Scare in US: House Un-American Activities Committee –Fears of Soviet espionage led to House Un-American Activities Committee to rid gov’t of spies –Loyalty Review Board –Loyalty Review Board fired gov’t workers for “reasonable doubt” –Justice Dept jailed 11 members of the Communist Party for plotting a socialist revolution Alger Hiss in State Dept was accused of being a USSR spy (the “pumpkin papers”) Ethel & Julius Rosenberg executed for leaking atomic secrets to the USSR despite lack of hard evidence Manhattan Project employee Klaus Fuchs admitted to providing nuclear plans to the USSR

43 McCarthyism in Action ■1950: Joseph McCarthy (R-WI) accused 205 State Dept workers of being Communists ■Began 4½ yr attack on “Communists” ■McCarthyism ■McCarthyism popular because it played into fears held by many in US Used barrage of treasonable actions against accused that overwhelmed defendant’s ability to respond Attacked US gov agencies (especially State Dept) of harboring spies Never found any actual Communists in gov & never had more than 50% approval rating among voters

44 Conclusions ■Cold War dominated US thoughts throughout the 1940s & early 50s: –Defense spending  dramatically –Nuclear arms race made people anxious about the future ■With Eisenhower’s election in 1952 American anxieties subsided as the Cold War became more covert


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