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P ROIECT A PUSENI P ROIECT A PUSENI : Sustainable development of a traditional landscape in Eastern Europe Evelyn Ruşdea, Katja Brinkmann & Albert Reif.

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Presentation on theme: "P ROIECT A PUSENI P ROIECT A PUSENI : Sustainable development of a traditional landscape in Eastern Europe Evelyn Ruşdea, Katja Brinkmann & Albert Reif."— Presentation transcript:

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2 P ROIECT A PUSENI P ROIECT A PUSENI : Sustainable development of a traditional landscape in Eastern Europe Evelyn Ruşdea, Katja Brinkmann & Albert Reif University of Freiburg

3 Contents (1) Proiect Apuseni: structure (2) Study area and traditional land-use (3) Interdisciplinary research: aims and methods (Dr. Evelyn Rusdea) (4) Evaluation methods and model based scenarios (Katja Brinkmann) (5) Participatory methods and „Leading projects“ (Dr. Evelyn Rusdea)

4 ... an interdisciplinary, intercultural, participatory research project (1) Proiect Apuseni: Structure Technical data Duration: (3 years) Support: German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) FKZ Directors: Prof. Dr. Werner Konold - Institute for Landscape Management Prof. Dr. Albert Reif - Institute of Silviculture Freiburg Coordination: Dr. Evelyn Ruşdea, Institute for Landscape Management (D) Dr. Ioan Povară, Institute of Speleology Bucharest (RO) Partners: 9 German institutions/partners 9 Romanian institutions/partners partners (35 German, 55 Romanian)

5 Gheţari m a.s.l. montane climate mm 4.5 o C ROMANIA (2) Study area: Geographical position

6 6.000 ha ha forest ha open land 308 ha 175 ha forest 133 ha open land High pasture “ Poiana Călineasa ”, 1350 m a.s.l. “core area” Gheţari, m a.s.l. Transect Gîrda – Gheţari – high pasture Gîrda de Sus, 700 m a.s.l. (2) Study area: Transect & “core area”

7 Study area: Region Region „Ţara Moţilor“

8 permanent settlements for the last 120 years Romanian “Moti” dispersed settlements (2) Study area: Colonisation small farms 1-3 ha meadows, pastures, small fields, gardens subsistence production

9 (2) Traditional land use: Meadows Hay harvesting with scythe, rake and fork

10 Animals per family: 1- 2 cows, calfs; 1-2 horses; pigs, chickens, dogs, cats Most animals on the high pasture during the summer Milk processed to cheese, whey and horse manure used as pig feed (2) Traditional land use: Animal rearing Marele Alb Bassner pig Warm blooded horses and heavy horses Pinzgau-influenced breed Bălţată Românească- influenced breed German Simmenthal- influenced breed = Main means of subsistence

11 (2) Traditional land use: High pasture From May to July: ¾ of the animals and half of the population are on the high pasture “Poiana Călineasa” (1.350 m)

12  Over utilisation of forests, new wealth in the short term  Electricity  Power chainsaws  Construction of roads  Consumption of luxury products: packaged supermarket goods, cars, land in the lowlands etc.  Increased social differences (2) Drastic changes since 1995  Waste and rubbish increases  Traditional constructions replaced by modern building materials

13 (3) Active participation (3) Active participation of the people and local key actors provides the basis for implementation (2) Interdisciplinary research (2) Interdisciplinary research between the disciplines of natural, economic and social sciences Analysis (4) Analysis of land-use and society, evaluations and model-based “scenarios” are fundamental to exemplary implementation (5) Intercultural cooperation (5) Intercultural cooperation between German and Romanian scientists, and the local actors, contribute to a common understanding and exchange of knowledge and expertise (1) Scaling up (1) Scaling up from an inventory of the “core area” of Ghetari towards a transect between the village “Girda de Sus” and the high pasture to the region “Ţara Moţilor” (3) Interdisciplinary research Methodological principles

14 (3) Interdisciplinary research and results Farmer interviews Soil analysis Field experiments Forest and vegetation inventory

15 (by M. Parichi) Soil map of Gheţari (308 ha) (3) Interdisciplinary research and results

16 Path, track Track margin, pathways Field, garden Fringes Vegetation types Spruce forest (Piceetum) Beech-Fir forest (Fagetum) Shrubland (Corylus, Spiraea) Pasture (Festuco-Brometea) Meadow (Festuco-Brometea) Meadow (Polygono-Trisetion) Pasture/meadow (Violion can.) Meadow (Calthion) Vegetation map of Gheţari (308 ha)

17 (by E. Auch) Households: interrelation of handcrafts, agronomy, forestry (3) Interdisciplinary research and results

18 Transdisciplinary structure of the project Analysis of landscape, land- use and land-use techniques  in agriculture  in forestry Integrated Evaluation of potentials for development (with participation of the local population, the local authorities and regional organizations) Integrated planning for land-use management Strategies and scenarios for a regional development Analysis of frame conditions Natural conditionsSocio-economic conditions Socio-economic analysis of the rural economy  at the level of households  at the level of the village  at the level of regional economical circles AgricultureForestryTradeTourismCommerce Ecological evaluation Socio-economic evaluation (3) Interdisciplinary research and results

19 Interdisciplinary evaluation methods and development of model based scenarios Based on objective oriented project design and management......(ZOPP, GTZ 1997) (1)Problem analysis (2)Analysis of objectives (3)Identify indicators for evaluation Interdisciplinary modelling and visualisation of scenarios Analysis of alternative developments- recommendations (4) Evaluation and scenarios Definition of scenarios for future developments

20 Social problemsEconomic and ecological problems I = Interview PR = PRA PP = Project representation A = Project aim ? (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Problem analysis

21 Problem tree Central problem (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Problem analysis

22 Clustering of Objectives Ecology Economy Social Specific ObjectivesActivitiesOverall Objectives Formulate Indicators for evaluation and measurement Identify Indicators (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Analysis of Objectives

23 Little emigration Stagnation of wages Stagnation of productivity High inflation rate Slow privatisation Stagnation of working places Stabilisation of currency Emigration Wages increase Productivity increases Rapid privatisation Rationalisation and new investments Action strategies and frame scenarios no EU-membership of RO until 2017EU-membership of RO until 2017 EU-membership or not? best caseworst case (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Definition of scenarios

24 action strategies strategy 1: “Traditio” defensive, no investment slow development of tourism and productivity increased forest exploitation few education opportunities high self- determination preservation of high biodiversity in open land low environmental pollution strategy 2: “Evolutio” investment in tourism, forestry and agriculture improvements in: tourism, productivity and techniques in agriculture and forestry sustainable forest use decrease of forestry income higher education opportunities moderate external influences, high self- determination decrease of biodiversity increase of environmental awareness strategy 3: “Capitalinvestitio” strong external investment activity improvements in: tourism, working places, infrastructure, marketing of regional products low self- determination, high external influences increase of environmental pollution solution of problems in Infrastructure economysocialecology Frame scenario + action strategy = Scenario definition  6 scenarios and basis scenario (actual state) EU-membership of RO until 2017 no EU-membership of RO until 2017 Scenario (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Definition of scenarios

25 Spatial modelling Non-spatial modelling (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Modelling of scenarios

26 Spatial modelling with GIS 1) Defining the input variables (primary descriptors) for the calculation of scenarios 2 ) Calculation of the secondary descriptors (amount of domestic animals,etc.) 3) Calculation of the production level due to the amount of domestic animals 4) Calculation of grassland area fo rhouseholds for the supply within the target scenario 5) Calculation and Distribution of the resulting amount of manure within the target scenario 6) Calculation of the necessary mineral fertiliser input 8) Calculation of the working hours and further costs for agriculture 7) Simulation of the land use changes and their influence on the floristic composition Flow of the scenario calculation in AVENUE OUTPUT ecological indicators - rareness/ endangering - naturalness/ hemeroby Integrated evaluation: Net diagramm “Amoeba” Data export to household module economic indicators -working hours, hay yield, Fertilisation, etc. (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Modelling of scenarios

27 Non-spatial modelling with MS Excel (by E. Auch) Data Processing in MS Excel working hours Invested capital whole income earned income structure of income economic indicators (4) Evaluation and scenarios: Modelling of scenarios

28 Example of two scenario types depicted as an amoeba diagram Ecological indicatorsEconomic indicators “Traditio”- none EU 2017 actual state Changes (%) (4) Evaluation and scenarios: results “Evolutio”- EU 2017

29 Transdisciplinary structure of the P ROIECT A PUSENI Analysis of landscape, land- use and land-use techniques  in agriculture  in forestry Integrated Evaluation of potentials for development (with participation of the local population, the local authorities and regional organizations) Analysis of frame conditions Natural conditionsSocio-economic conditions Socio-economic analysis of the rural economy  at the level of households  at the level of the village  at the level of regional economical circles AgricultureForestryTradeTourismCommerce Strategies and scenarios for a regional development Ecological evaluation Socio-economic evaluation Internal and external communication(public relations, mass-media) Political advertising Participation Transdisciplinary structure of the project

30 P ROIECT A PUSENI Participation in the P ROIECT A PUSENI (5) Participatory methods Information / Motivation Participation Co-operation Leading projects, „Forum comunal“ Association „Platoul Gheţari - Călineasa“ Interviews (locals and experts), PRA, workshops, consulting Public relations, opening ceremony, flyers, discussions, lectures Participatory actions: examples Gheţari in 2017 ? Planning for Real Role-play Workshop for the future Leading Projects

31 Planning for Real Meeting with the mayors from the region (5) Participatory methods: Participatory actions

32 Role-playing „Future of Gheţari until 2017“ – 3 scenarios Capital- investitio Traditio Evolutio (5) Participatory methods: Participatory actions

33 Participation through „Leading projects“ Grassland management and fertilisation Animal breeding, construction of stables Vegetable crops Medicinal plants: Arnica montana Water supply Rural tourism (5) Participatory methods: Leading projects

34 Leading project „Animal breeding“ ­ Animal breeding ­ Planning of stable building ­ Winterschool

35 - New vegetable species and varieties - Greenhouse (plastic film) - Seedling procurement - Winterschool Leading project „Crop cultivation“ (5) Participatory methods: Leading projects

36 Leading project „Medicinal plants“ Arnica montana

37 New tourist pension Seminar „Rural tourism“ Leading project „Rural tourism“

38 (5) Participatory methods: Leading projects Tourists Information center in Ghetari: A traditional blockhouse stable, roof made from spruce branches

39 Thank you for your attention!


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