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 Civil Rights Act of 1875  Outlawed segregation  Supreme Court overturned it in 1883  Plessy v. Ferguson  “separate but equal” did not violate the.

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Presentation on theme: " Civil Rights Act of 1875  Outlawed segregation  Supreme Court overturned it in 1883  Plessy v. Ferguson  “separate but equal” did not violate the."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Civil Rights Act of 1875  Outlawed segregation  Supreme Court overturned it in 1883  Plessy v. Ferguson  “separate but equal” did not violate the 14 th amendment (equal treatment)  Allowed Southern states to pass Jim Crow laws (separating the races)  Allowed restrictions on inter-race contact

3  WW2 set the stage for the civil rights movement  Opened new job opportunities  One million African Americans served  Came home and fought to end discrimination  During the war, civil rights organizations fought for voting rights and challenged Jim Crow laws

4  Campaign led by the NAACP  Focused on inequality between separate schools that states provided  Thurgood Marshall argued many of these cases  Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka  Marshall’s most stunning victory  Supreme Court struck down segregation in public schools as a violation of 14 th amendment  To be implemented “with all deliberate speed”

5  Official reaction was mixed  Within a year, 500 school districts had desegregated  Some areas resisted  Reappearance of KKK  Governor of Georgia – “Georgia will not comply”!

6  State had been planning for desegregation  Governor Faubus ordered the National Guard to turn away the “Little Rock Nine”  The 9 African American students who would integrate Little Rock Central High  A Federal judge ordered Faubus to let the students attend the school  Eisenhower placed the National Guard under federal control to watch the 9 attend school  A year later, Faubus shut down the high school

7  African Americans were impatient with the slow speed of change  Took direct action  1955 – Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat and was arrested  JoAnn Robinson suggested a boycott of the buses  Leaders of the African American community formed the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)  Elected 26 yr old Martin Luther King to lead

8  Dr. King made a passionate speech and filled the audience with a sense of mission  African Americans boycotted the buses for 381 days and filed a lawsuit  Organized car pools  Walked long distances  1956 – Supreme Court outlawed bus segregation

9  MLK called his nonviolent resistance “soul force”  Influences  Jesus – love one’s enemies  Henry David Thoreau – concept of civil disobedience (refusal to obey an unjust law)  A. Philip Randolph – massive demonstrations  Gandhi – non violent resistance

10  SCLC founded in 1957 by MLK and other civil rights leaders  Purpose – carry on nonviolent crusades against discrimination  Used protests and demonstrations  Helped organize a student protest group (SNCC) – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee  Challenge the system!

11  Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) staged the first sit-in in 1942  African Americans would sit at segregated lunch counters and refuse to leave until they were served  1960 – students in North Carolina staged a sit-in at a lunch counter  Television crews covered the protest  African Americans were non-violent, but white resistance was not  Movement spread across nation (sit-ins in 48 cities)

12  Freedom riders expose Southern resistance to federal desegregation rulings.  They rode buses throughout the south hoping to provoke white racists and force Kennedy and the administration to act  The Freedom Riders were attacked and the bus line refused to take them any further after one bus was fire bombed  CORE Freedom Riders stopped, but SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) resumed…

13  When the SNCC riders went to Birmingham the Police Chief “Bull” Connor had them beaten and taken to Tennessee.  But they returned and sat in a white only bus terminal until they could get a ride to Montgomery  Attorney General, Robert Kennedy finally forced the bus company to take them on May 20, 1961 after waiting for 18 hours  In addition, a federal order banning segregation in all interstate travel facilities, including waiting rooms, restrooms, and lunch counters was handed down

14  Federal troops are needed to get James Meredith into the all-white University of Mississippi  Meredith won a court case that allowed him to enroll  The governor, Ross Barnett refused to let him register as a student  JFK ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith to the registrar’s office

15  Barnet appealed over the radio to Mississippians to “never surrender”  Riots broke out on September 30, 1962  2 deaths resulted  it took 5,000 soldiers, 200 arrests, and 15 hours to stop the rioters  Meredith was escorted to class following the incident and nightriders shooting at his parents house forced federal protection

16  Television coverage of the brutal treatment of marchers in Birmingham leads President Kennedy to call for passage of a new civil rights bill  Birmingham was strict on its total segregation policy and had 18 bombings between 1957 and 1963  MLK Jr. and SCLC invited to Birmingham to desegregate city by Fred Shuttlesworth, head of Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights  MLK Jr. arrested and write a “letter from Birmingham jail”  Economic boycott and negative press convinced Birmingham officials to end segregation

17  August 28, ,000 people (75,000 whites) march on Washington and hear MLK Jr. deliver his improvised “I have a Dream” speech  The violence continued with more bombings of churches.  President Johnson pushes the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress

18  This act prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender.  It also gave citizens the right to enter libraries, parks, washrooms, restaurants, theaters, and other public accommodations.

19  Violence and intimidation prevent millions of African Americans in the South from registering to vote  Two groups, the SNCC and CORE began going through the south to register as many people as possible.  This became known as the “Freedom Summer”  The group consisted of primarily student volunteers, mostly white.  In June of 1964, three workers disappeared in Mississippi.  It was later found out that local police and KKK members had killed them.  Through the summer, the beatings continued, along with the burning of businesses, homes, and churches

20  African Americans wanted a voice to try and make the political changes occur.  In 1964, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party was formed.  They were led by Fannie Lou Hamer  The MFDP were given 2 seats in the Mississippi Democratic Convention.  Hamer’s response “We didn’t come all this way for no two seats.”

21  In the beginning of 1965, the SNCC began a major voting rights campaign in Selma, Alabama.  After demonstrator Jimmy Lee Jackson was killed, a march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama was announced.  This was lead by Martin Luther King Jr.  600 protestors set out on March 7,  That night, police swung whips, clubs, and used tear gas to stop the march.  On March 21, 1965, 3,000 marchers set out again for Montgomery with federal protection.  Soon the number grew to 25,000

22  In the summer of 1965, the Voting Rights Act was finally passed.  It prohibited any literacy tests that had previously stopped many voters.  In Selma, 10% of African Americans were registered to vote in  By 1968, 60% of the population was registered.  Some felt the law did not go far enough

23  In the mid 1960s differences over tactics create divisions in the civil rights movement.  In the north, de facto segregation traps many African Americans in decaying slums.  De facto segregation exists by practice and customs  De jure segregation is created by laws.  Urban riots revealed that many African Americans suffer economic and political inequality.  1964 – Riots broke out in Harlem over the death of a 15 year old student.  1965 – One of the worst riots in the nation’s history took place in the Watts area of Los Angeles.  The rage baffled whites since they had accomplished so much in the south.

24  Malcom X appeals to a growing sense of African American pride.  He encouraged African-Americans to take control of their communities, livelihoods, and culture.  His later efforts to temper African American separatism alienate many Black Muslims, three of whom assassinate him.  Stokley Carmichael and the Black Panthers signal the growing radicalism of some segments of the African American community.  The Black Panthers were started by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California,  Even though militant, the efforts of the Black Panthers to improve neighborhoods won support from many in the ghettos.

25  Martin Luther King attempts to organize a Poor People’s Campaign to counter the angry rhetoric of Black Power.  King is assassinated in Memphis, where he was helping African-American trash collectors fight for fair treatment from the city.  King’s death sets off the worst wave of race riots in the nation’s history.

26  The civil rights movement wipes out de jure segregation from the laws of America.  De facto segregation and unequal economic opportunities remain entrenched.  The lingering affects of racism, as reported by the Kerner Commission, remain one of the greatest challenges facing the nation in the years ahead.


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