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2 Relatively unknown war, curtain-raiser, overshadowed by WW2 Only European civil war between Russian and Yugoslavian wars  As savage as any Inspiration for a generation  International Brigades Politicised artists and intellectuals N  Books,  Art  Poetry  Film 2

3 Spanish History from – 1st Republic – Constitutional Monarchy of Alfonso XII and XIII 1898 – Spain loses war and last colonies to USA. Sense of disillusionment and need for national regeneration – growing political and social unrest through Spain 1921 – military defeat in Morocco 3

4 Spanish History from – Coup [ Pronunciamento ] by Primo de Rivera (with royal assent), ‘temporary dictatorship’ – fall of Primo, pressing need for return to representative government 1930 – Pact of San Sebastian, alliance of republican and socialist parties 1930 – December, failed republican military revolt 1931 – April, municipal elections, flight of Alfonso, proclamation of Republic 4

5 The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, Achievements  Public works and modernisation  Conciliated socialists  Won Moroccan War  Some prosperity Problems  Censorship and Repression  Economic effects of Depression  Opposition from interest groups  Growth of Republicanism 5

6 Spanish Society Spain still predominantly a backward, agrarian society, riddled with injustice Ruling classes – rural and urban aristocracy, landowners + industrialists Relatively small professional middle-class, little economic power Petit-bourgeoisie, artisans, shopkeepers Industrial workers, only certain areas Tenant-farmers, controlled by landlords Landless agricultural labourers 6

7 The Second Republic 2nd Republic brought an air of hope, a new beginning and more open, honest government Many Spaniards would have subscribed to programme of reform: new constitution, Church + education, conditions of rural and industrial workers, general injustice But characterised by ever increasing political + social polarisation What went wrong? 7

8 The 2 nd Republic – forces and influences on the Right – Tradition + vested interest The Monarchy Landlords + and landowners Industrial wealth The Catholic Church - education The Armed Forces – order+ centralisation Carlism - 19thC reactionary movement Fascism - 20thC movement incorporating violence + social rhetoric 8

9 Parties of the Right CEDA - Confederation of right-wing Catholic groups, some govt posts JONS - fascist group, fused with other fascist party, Falange in 1934 FET - single party created by Franco in

10 The 2 nd Republic - forces and influences on the Left - social justice + progress The Republic Land reform, tenant farmers + workers Industrial workers + unions Anti-clericalism – freedom of thought Regional autonomy, Catalonia + Basque Civil rights + womens’ rights, freedom of the press The Left were a strong force in opposition but too fragmented in victory 10

11 Organisations of the Left UGT - (1882) socialist trade-union CNT - (1910) Trade Union with anarchist affiliations FNTT -agricultural worker’s union Communist Party (PCE) - very small before 1936, changed from being revolutionary to supporters of democracy POUM - anti-Stalinist communist party in Catalonia 11

12 The 2nd Republic June, General Election for Cortes, overwhelming victory for Republicans and parties of the Left Parties of the Right in disarray, legacy of old regime , Series of left-wing coalition governments attempted reforms , right-wing in power, reversing reforms and protecting ruling classes 1936, return of leftist alliance military coup and 3 year civil war 12

13 Features of the 2nd Republic Divisions between parties within left + right European background, rise of fascism and communism provided an atmosphere and rhetoric of fear + violence New parties on right, CEDA and Falange Escalating cycle of polarisation as both sides pursued all out victory rather than compromise 13

14 1st Phase, the Left Republic Not a liberal revolution in 19thC fashion Needed Socialist involvement Attempted land reforms, resisted Strong anti-clerical measures – alienated many possible supporters Army reforms Suppression of union and anarchist troubles to defend law + order Impatience of far left with slow results New extreme right parties – JONS, CEDA, Falange 14

15 2nd Phase, The Right Republic ‘bienio negro’ Systematic reversal of reforms Ambiguous attitude of supporters to the Republic Gil Robles, CEDA leader - Minister of War Rising wave of workers’ protests + strikes – brutal suppression (e.g. Franco in Asturias) Popular Front – parties of left unite for election 15

16 3rd Phase Feb-July 36 - Build up to war Feb - first evenly contested election, victory for Popular Front (narrow in votes) Azaña President, but Socialists under Largo Caballero (‘Spanish Lenin’) stay out of govt Growing violence/unrest - workers want reforms, extreme right destabilising govt  Land occupations, strikes and church burnings Break down of law + order, political assassinations, Right plots military coup July 13 Calvo Sotelo killed – 17/18 coup begins 16

17 Civil War - the early days, July-September July 17 - First rebel moves in Morocco (Franco) + Canary Islands Pattern repeated by army garrisons across Spain, mixed success July 22, rebels expected to be in charge Spain divided into 2 quite even camps Stalemate - negotiated peace or military victory 17

18 Why did the rebellion fail? Indecision + lack of co-ordination Military and police stayed loyal to Republic in many areas Spontaneous resistance by ordinary Spanish (mostly workers) Barcelona + Madrid, workers were armed and formed militia 18

19 The Balance of Power - the Republic Big share of Navy + Air Force, half Army & Civil/ Assault Guards Main industrial areas Gold + silver reserves + export crops Legal status as legitimate government to buy arms and call for aid from sympathetic powers Republic support embraced a very wide political spectrum who found it difficult to co-exist and who were often keen to pursue own goals 19

20 The Balance of Power - the rebels Backing of private wealth + traditional institutions like the Church Army of Africa under Franco, crack troops Active early support from Italy and Germany (set up through Franco) Food producing areas Support from Portugal 20

21 Developments in the Republic Worker resistance led to real social revolution in some areas Loss of government authority in many areas - some atrocities against right Socialist govt led by Largo Caballero Socialists become more left-wing, involvement of Anarchists – divisions within government Call for help to Soviet Union, Comintern organises International Brigades Heroic defence of Madrid, "no paseran" 21

22 Developments in rebel-held Spain Italian + German aid Franco’s army into Spain, steady advance into Republican territory Rise of General Franco to political and military supremacy - meteoric, based on military skills + lack of rivals 28 Sept - Franco accepts positions of Generalissimo + Head of New State Imposes control + unity in Nationalist Spain Systematic massacres of Republican supporters 22

23 Attitudes of Foreign Powers Non-intervention agreed (July-August 1936) Franco was receiving open aid from Italy + Germany Republic should have expected some support from other democracies France + Britain - Why did this not happen? Only Russia offers any support Need to look at European situation, democracy in crisis, economic problems - rise of extreme political movements 23

24 Attitudes of Foreign Powers - France France - own Popular Front govt (Blum) and left- right tensions like Spain Early sympathy, then threats from right “better Hitler than Blum” Cabinet splits put own reforms in doubt Pressure from Britain Not swayed by real threat of being surrounded by fascist powers 24

25 Attitudes of Foreign Powers - Britain Conservative govt, Baldwin: policy of appeasement to avoid another war Fear of upsetting Hitler while also trying to woo Mussolini away from Hitler Fear of war spreading into rest of Europe Sympathy for Nationalist cause and expectation of victory Pre-occupation with abdication crisis of Edward VIII + Mrs Simpson ! 25

26 Attitudes of Foreign Powers - Russia Rise of Fascism first viewed as death-throes of capitalism + fore-runner of communist revolution But Hitler seen as threat to Russia – need to resist fascism, so revised foreign policy So co-operation with democracies + Popular Front movements supported Support for Spanish Republic through CP but with strings attached 26

27 Russian Influence on the Republic USSR wanted bolstering of its ally France more than promotion of Communist revolution in Spain – feared Nationalist Spain would weaken alliance. The Republic’s dilemma…  For many on the left, the social revolution was the real reason to fight Franco and the only motivation for the peasants + workers to fight  For the moderates success could only be achieved by restoring government authority and proper military discipline 27

28 Russia and the Republic - positive Russia supplied much equipment and also advisers but not manpower International Brigades The Popular Army replaced the militias, more conventional/disciplined Attracted more middle classes to Republican cause Delayed defeat of Republic 28

29 Russia and the Republic - negative Russia’s main aims -  Aid through CP to increase its power  Bolster the democratic republic  Stifle any social revolution - not in plan  CP secret police + suppression of other left parties killed the Republic’s spirit (Barcelona Days ) - civil war within the Civil War 29

30 Russia and the Republic - negative Delay Nationalist victory until outbreak of European war Part of overall strategy to protect Russia against Hitler After Munich agreement, Stalin gave up hope of war in Europe and abandoned the Republic Russian policy cynical + opportunistic, never to win the war, but to delay victory of Nationalists 30

31 Main Events of the War July - rebel military rising, German and Italian aid Steady Nationalist advance: Irun, Toledo, San Sebastian Oct - Franco head of Nationalist state Nov - Republic holds Madrid, Russian aid + International Brigades, Republican government moves to Valencia 31

32 Main Events of the War-1937 Feb-March - Fall of Malaga, Battles of Jarama + Guadalajara April - Franco unifies Falange + Carlists in FET, Germans bomb Guernica May – ‘Civil war within the Civil War’, CP takes control, Barcelona Negrin replaces Largo Caballero as Rep PM, Oct govt moves to Barcelona Fall of Basques and North coast Dec - Rep offensive at Teruel 32

33 Main Events of the War, Feb - Nationalists recapture Teruel April - Rep govt changes, Nationalists reach Mediterranean coast cutting Republican zone in two July-Nov - Battle of Ebro – final, epic Republican fling turns into defeat Dec 38-Feb39 – Nationalists advance into final Republican stronghold, Catalonia March - fall of Madrid + central Spain April 1st - Franco declares end of war 33

34 Why Did Franco Win? Quantity + quality of German + Italian aid, few strings attached. Air supremacy by 1937/8 and crucial in July Experienced military force – Army of Africa Enforced political + military unity Franco head of state and Commander in chief Falange and Carlists incorporated Franco - steady if undramatic military success Good defensive tactics but also successful offensives Controlled food producing areas 34

35 Why did the Republic Lose? Political divisions throughout the war Problems of militias Independent Fronts Lack of trained junior officers North cut off from rest of Republic Farce of non-intervention - European picture Russian + CP power in Republic leads to demoralisation in Rep areas Food shortages 35

36 Reflections + Consequences 200,000 or more deaths + thousands to suffer prison + discrimination under Franco’s regime Spain condemned to nearly 50 years of totalitarian right-wing govt Humiliation of European democracy + propaganda victory + “war practice” for Hitler and Mussolini 36


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