2Infer & Predict: What kind of war would make a soldier feel this way? What country do you think this soldier was from?What do you think he was fighting for?Dear Mom and Dad,Today we went on a mission, and I am not very proud of myself, my friends, or my country.
3Vietnam Basics Location: Population Resources In Southeast Asia, near Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and parts of ChinaPopulation83 Million PeopleMostly BuddhistStrong minority of CatholicsResourcesVery fertile, hot and wet climate, many resources
4Vietnam History (Key Points) Before WWII, France controlled Vietnam
5WWII & VietnamAt the beginning of the War, French still control Vietnam. Vietnamese resistance grows.Ho Chi MinhLeader of the Viet MinhWants an independent VietnamOpposes French, Japanese, and AMERICANMillions rejoice that their country is free of foreign control at last!
6Declaring Independence WW2 Ends and September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent !!Ho Chi Minh reads from US Declaration of IndependenceSome see Ho Chi Minh’s Declaration of Independence as evidence of being a nationalist rather than being a communist. They refer to this example has him expressing his interest in having a relationship with the United States.BUT, the French want Indochina back, and they do not recognize Vietnamese independence. Reclaim colony.What should the US do? Support Vietnamese or help France regain its colonial empire?
7Other interests / benefits for the US…?? A secret US govt. memo from 1952 talked about SE Asia’s valuable resources:RubberTinOilwere important to the US … if the Vietnam govt. won against France and took over they might be hostile towards the US and not trade with us (Oh NO!)
8First Indo-China War 1945-1954 France vs. Viet Minh French try to keep Vietnam, Viet Minh fight for Independence70% of French costs are paid by USDien Bien Phu1954Final defeat of French by Vietnamese, French Surrender1954 Geneva ConferenceEnd Hostilities between French and VietnameseTemporarily divide Vietnam at 17th parallel until French leave.Elections in 1956
9South VietnamInstead of supporting Geneva Agreement and allowing unification elections and a Communist victory, US supports creation of a non-Communist, South Vietnam.American war in Vietnam is fought to keep South Vietnam Non-Communist!
10JFK & VietnamViews Vietnam as important to Cold War like Truman and EisenhowerBegins Escalation of TroopsOverall picture unsure due to assassinationJFK believed the best way to stop communists in Vietnam was to build South Vietnam into a nation.
11Ngo Dinh Diem First leader of South Vietnam Nationalist but strongly anti-CommunistCatholicReceives strong support from Eisenhower & KennedyMassive military and financial aid from USBrutal to communistsUpsets Buddhist MajorityAdministration is very corrupt
12Assassination of Diem November 2, 1963 Kennedy either knew of the plot and ignored it or supported it.American Ambassador promised no American intervention to stop the plot.South Vietnamese Generals seize power and arrest Diem.Assassinated following morning in back of an armored vehicle.South Vietnamese government would never be stable.Increased American involvement in South Vietnam’s Internal Affairs.
13Troop EscalationWhen Eisenhower left office, less than 1,000 US soldiers were in VietnamAt the time of Kennedy’s assassination (1963), over 16,000 solders were in Vietnam.By 1969, Vietnam had 543,000 US solidersMany of the solders under JFK were Special Forces and under Johnson, regular ground troops were introduced.
14Who did America Fight in Vietnam? Viet CongNorth Vietnamese ArmyBoth groups were heavily supplied from USSR via China
15Johnson & Limited WarJohnson was afraid of conflict spreading to involve USSR & China.Strict rules of engagement – limited targets for US Troops and Air StrikesAreas of North Vietnam, Cambodia, and LaosNorth Vietnamese Communists can attack, move supplies from and retreatAMERICAN TROOPS CANNOT GONorth VietnamWants a unified, Communist VietnamWants Americans OutWants One Vietnam
16Early American Support for War in Vietnam Americans initially supported the warHit Song “The Green Berets”Public is told troops will be home soon, and the war is almost over.Vietnam is the first war that is heavily covered by television networks.American public sees daily images of casualtiesPublic begins to turn against the war.
17EscalationJohnson attempts to limit the war while at the same time constantly increasing the number of soldiers in VietnamOver 500,000 soldiers by 1969LBJ would attempt negotiations at the same time he would scale back offensive operations in VietnamNorth Vietnamese take advantage of this.
18Tet OffensiveTet – most important holiday in Vietnam, Vietnamese New Year. It is the most popular festival in Vietnam.1968Viet Cong attack every major US base in South VietnamNorth Vietnamese Army takes city of Hue and kills many inhabitants.US Embassy in Saigon is attacked.
19Effects of Tet Major Military victory for the US Viet Cong is devastatedAmerican media turns against the war.American public turns against the war.Political and psychological victory for North Vietnam.American Anti-War MovementStrong anti-war movement in USWar divides American population
21CambodiaNeutralViet Cong & North Vietnamese use Cambodia as a sanctuaryUS troops cannot enterCambodian government is powerless from preventing Communists from enteringBad history between Vietnam & Cambodia
22Nixon & Cambodia Nixon: Supports coup that puts strong anti-Communist government in chargeExpands conflictSecretly bombs and invades CambodiaBombing & Invasion fails to make any significance in warCambodian communists go deeper into CambodiaVietnamese were using Cambodia to attack AmericansPublic Opinion:War is illegalPublic is outraged at expansion of the conflictMassive protests
23Nixon & Ending Vietnam War Uses combination of increased bombing of North Vietnam and Secret NegotationsDiplomacy with China and USSRVietnamization – Nixon’s PlanTurn the war over to the South VietnameseTrain & equip South Vietnamese to fight the NorthUS Troops withdrawLast US troops leave by 1973South Vietnam Betrayed?South Vietnam is promised that the US would send troops, money, and supplies if North Vietnamese launched a massive attack.Nixon resigns due to WatergateCongress and American people do not support further involvement
241975 & Results of War North Vietnam takes over South Vietnam US doesn’t prevent the take over.Vietnam is unified under one communist stateResults:Just under 60,000 Americans killedUS reluctant to use military powerAmerican public is dividedAmericans don’t trust governmentVietnam is CommunistCambodia falls to CommunistsKhmer Rouge/Cambodian Communist take powerPol Pot is leaderKilling Fields – Genocide of 1/3 of the Cambodian populationVietnam invades and occupies Cambodia to defeat Khmer Rouge