Presentation on theme: "United Kingdom Air Defence"— Presentation transcript:
1United Kingdom Air Defence OVERVIEW OF UKASACSWHY DO WE NEED AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM?STAXTON ROMAN BEACON 376ADPROTECT AIR SPACE - MONITOR & CONTROLWHEN DID IT ALL START?A Brief History
2Typical East Coast CH Site Air Ministry Experimental Station (AMES), Research in Microwave Radar,Initial Air Defence System a series Latticed Masts Known As CHAIN HOME1937 Bawdsey - First Chain Home Station. Range was about 80 miles but had no bearing.Comprised of four masts about 350 feet high. Used the AMES type 11938 Five Stations - Using triangulation method now able to deduce bearing. One central control Station set up to co-ordinate air response.Provide Ground Controlled Interception.Radar - RAdio Detection and RangingChain Home Latticed Masts
3Requirement for Development 1939/40 22 Stations – CHAIN HOMEMany changes have taken place over the years. From the 1940’s Chain Home network to present day UK Air Defence.1938 RAF exercises demonstrated that low-flying aircraft could escape detection completely. Significant gaps in its low level cover below about 2000ftRequirement for Development 1939/40 22 Stations –From the Isle of Wight along the south and east coast to the Orkneys spaced about 30 miles apart giving 150 mile range.UK now split into sectors, each controlling their own aircraft.in August 1939, on Watson-Watt's recommendation, the Air Ministry ordered 24 CD Costal Defence sets from Pye Radio with the intention of placing one at each CH site. These stations became known as Chain Home Low (CHL) stations and the equipment as AMSE Radar Type 2.The 1940’s Chain Home – look at all the stations we had then – Staxton Wold & Neatishead are the only ones still going
4Ground Controlled Interception Operators could direct our aircraft to within 5 miles of an intercept which was OK on sunny days or clear nights but not when it was dark or bad weather. The only accurate way then was to point the radar at the target and guide the interceptor down its beam but this had the problem of tying up a radar (Type A Display)In the June of 1940 the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) built the first Plan Position Indicator (PPI).This had the advantage of allowing the operators to accurately guide the interceptors to their targets.Even if there was an offset in the display the offset was the same for all returnsThe PPI is the rotational screen that we all recognise from the war films there the returns are shown by a “bright up” however they do not go BING or BLEEP every sweepPPI Data relayed to Reporting Rooms in Bunker
5There were also mobile radars to give further support ROTOR – Post WW2During the early 50s under the code name ROTOR a new type of purpose built radar sites at Neatishead, Bawdsey, Patrington, Boulmer, and Buchan were re-engineered with amongst others type 14 EF band search, type 13 EF band height finders and American lease lend radars being fed into steel and concrete earth covered bunkers called R3s.These were built because the thinking was that any war would have a conventional build-up before nuclear weapons were used.Extending the area covered by the systems were Soft Rotor sites both between these sites and around the coastline of the UKThere were also mobile radars to give further supportType 13 and 14 Radars
6BERLIN AIRLIFTHowever during the Berlin airlift some were re-opened and it was discovered that most of the equipment required major refurbishment but also most of the C2 (Command & Control) abilities had been lost therefore it was decided to revamp this countries Air Defences
7ROTOR ROTOR series Ops Room Once again data sent to central control centresUnder Ground Ops Room in R3 BunkerBunkers Were well disguised!ROTOR series Ops Room
8CUBAN MISSILE CRISISThe Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the world ever came to nuclear war. The United States armed forces were at their highest state of readiness ever and Soviet field commanders in Cuba were prepared to use battlefield nuclear weapons to defend the island if it was invaded. Luckily, thanks to the bravery of two men, President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, war was averted.In 1962, the Soviet Union was desperately behind the United States in the arms race. Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. In late April 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. A deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union.
9Protect the V Force for retaliation (Vulcan, Valiant and Victor). Tripwire ResponseWe moved into the 60’s with what was known as the tripwire response Cuban missile crisis Nuclear pre-emptive strike.FYLINGDALESThe principle radars of the linesman system were the type 84 and 85 with other units still using the type 80 Saxa Vord was one they were supplemented by the NATCS mediator systemMaster radar has one radar at a site with all others supplementing it. The idea was that the another radar could follow the master by 180 degrees thus a target would be detected twice per sweep.Protect the V Force for retaliation (Vulcan, Valiant and Victor).As mentioned previously all Command & Control was carried out at West Drayton.So most of what we last talked about was because of the changing threat that was now perceived to be from the Soviet Union and her allies and specifically from nuclear weapons.RAF and USAF operated American THOR missiles with all warheads targeting Warsaw pact countriesThe THOR system was controlled by RAF bomber command consisting of 4 wings each with 5 squadrons with each sqn having 3 ICBMs totalling 60ICBM Early Warning Console Position
10Air Defence Radar Stations (New RADARS;- T84, T85, HF 200, HSAPD, SSR 750)All 3 sites had exactly the same set up, and all of the data was sent to West Drayton via BT Microwave linkHighly Centralised, Radar Data Processing System (RDPS), High level of redundancy, Automation, Anti-jamming.The idea behind plan ahead scheme was to utilise developments in computer and data processing, and even anticipated developments.The main points were. All control and processing carried out at one location.West Drayton system was called RDPS which consisted of 20 computers connected together,Two central control centres each able to take full controlIntercept control automated fighters on direct line prior to take off then via high power G-A comms, only final stage was manual.All radars on same band but used different freq therefore any jamming would have to be over a wide spectrum.Type 84 Radar
11Air Defence Radar Stations The recognised air picture was a digital picture display covering an area of 2048sq miles from the UK to the Faroe IslandsThis picture was sent to all the AD units and the name became the recognised air picture dissemination systemAll participating agencies were linked together on a ring system where all terminals had at least 2 routes they also had a system for manually inputting additional data. The system was then called Enhanced recognised air picture dissemination system ERAPDSType 85 Radar
13UNI Consoles & Upgrades 1992 UKADR – UKADGE - ICCS (Uni Con DDN & DHS)BOXER & UNITER Comms Between sitesIMPROVED IUKADGE - MID LIFE UP GRADEA Complete replacement for all systemsEVENTUALLY Back to UKADGE- NO Longer Improved -Started to Contract out Servicing & MaintenanceUKADGE Capability Maintenance Program (UCMP) Upgrading program to UKADGE Replace ICCSservicing costs of Consoles £1,000,000 ea 44 X 3 main site Buchan, Boulmer, NeatisheadUKASACS _ Making ready for modernisationNOW UKASACS Command Control SystemUCCS VCS CCS etc…
14UKADRThe UK Air Defence Region is a region of air space, around the United KingdomThe region is 2048 square miles covering the United Kingdom and Faroe Islands.We said one of the functions was to identify intrusions into the UK Air Defence Air Space or UK Air Defence Region as we call it.During War or Conflict UKADR1st Click – Map of UK2nd Click – AD region around UK3rd Click – Shows region around UK4th Click – Gives size of region.The systems required to control this region will be covered during the next lesson.
15Features of an Air Defence Radar 3 Dimensional Cover.Long Range Detection.Good Clutter Rejection.Secondary Surveillance Radar.
16Features of an Air Defence Radar Display FacilitiesCommunication FacilitiesGround to AirTelephonesData LinksTime & Position - Global Position System.Maintainability - Line Replaceable Unit.
22T101 Main Features Frequency Band Bandwidth Frequency Agility GHzBandwidth400 MHzFrequency Agility32 Different User Frequencies.Instrumented Range254 nautical miles
23Type 101 Located at: Portreath Kirton in Lindsey 1 Air Control Center (1ACC)3D radar - range, bearing, heightE/F band Ghzrange 254nm (effective listening range)
24UKASACS Air Defence Radar Sites BENBECULA BUCHAN BRIZLEE WOOD THE T101 IS LOCATED AT PORTEATH1 Air Control Center (1ACC) is located at Kirton in Lindsey. It was planned that it would eventually move into RAF Scampton.1ACC normally has no input into ASACS.BRIZLEE WOODSTAXTON WOLDTRIMINGHAMPORTREATHKIRTON IN LINDSEY
25T101 Main Features Pulse Duration Compressed Pulse Length 400 nsRotation Speed / Scan Speed6 rpmPulse Repetition Interval854.4 to ms
26T101 Main Features Positional Accuracy at 220Km (118nM) Range 48m. Azimuth. 0.22 .Height. 2,400 feet
27T101 Main Features Elevation Coverage Radio Frequency (RF) Power 0 to 20 with Electronic tilt offset ranging from -2 to +5.75.Radio Frequency (RF) Power200 kW (Spot Frequency).150 kW (Across the full frequency spread).5.48 kW Mean (4% duty cycle).
28UKASACS Air Defence Radar Sites BENBECULA BUCHAN BRIZLEE WOOD THE T101 IS LOCATED AT PORTEATH1 Air Control Center (1ACC) is located at Kirton in Lindsey. It was planned that it would eventually move into RAF Scampton.1ACC normally has no input into ASACS.BRIZLEE WOODSTAXTON WOLDTRIMINGHAMPORTREATHKIRTON IN LINDSEY