3End of WW2 Soviet Union occupies central & eastern Europe Germany is divided between Soviets & AlliesWest Germany democratic government; achieved self-governmentEast Germany dominated by Soviets; did not establish self-government
5Improve your knowledge Divided BerlinThe Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
6Japan occupied by US forces Adopted democratic form of governmentResumed self-governmentBecame strong US ally
7United Nations Established at Yalta Conference Stalin want to charge Germany $20 billionStalin would join war against JapanDisagreements over PolandEstablished United NationsReplaced League of NationsGoals:Prevent future global warsSolve differences peacefully & promote justice
8YALTA (in the USSR)Date: Feb 1945Present: Churchill,Roosevelt and Stalin
9Cold War Lasted from end of WW2 to collapse of Soviet Union (1989) CausesEconomic & political differences between U.S. & Soviet UnionU.S.: democratic government & capitalist economySoviet Union: totalitarian government, communist economy, & satellite nations
16Marshall Plan U.S. did not want same mistakes as WW1 George C. Marshall writes plan for European economic recoveryLeaving Europe on their own may cause countries to turn communistBuilding up other countries making allies & future partnersEuropean Recovery Plan; over $13 billion in aid to Europe (ERP)
18Berlin Airlift Stalin tries cutting off West Berlin from Allies Truman did not want to lose Berlin or risk war
19British & US Air Forces deliver supplies to Berlin 13,000 tons of supplies arrived dailySoviets give up Berlin blockade*1 plane every 3 minutes *227,000 flights
20Stalin removes the blockade when he realizes the allies are not going to give up their sector of Berlin.
21Vittles, the boxer dog flew 131 missions with his owner, Lt Vittles, the boxer dog flew 131 missions with his owner, Lt. Russ Steber, during the Berlin Airlift. Gen. Curtis LeMay ordered the parachute made for him to ensure his safety. Vittles accumulated around 2,000 flying hours, but never had to use the parachute
22Halverson received the Bundesverdienstorden in 1974 and carried the placard for Germany during the Salt Lake City Olympic opening ceremony in 2002US Air Force Lieutenant Gail Halverson throws chocolate and chewing gum with mini parachutes he made himself out of his aircraft in October 1948
23North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Alliance between U.S. & western European countries to prevent Soviet invasion of Western EuropeSoviets alliance with Eastern Europe forming Warsaw Pact in response
24Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization USA, France, Great Britain, West GermanyCAPITALISMWarsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR.COMMUNISM
25Communist advances Soviet atomic threat Evidence of Soviet nuclear explosionRace for hydrogen bomb
26China falls to Communists Mao Zedong establishes People’s Republic of ChinaChiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists forced to retreat to Taiwan
27Cold War at home Red Scare continued World seemed divided between communist & democratic countriesCommunists develop nuclear weaponsBoth sides have nuclear buildup threatening safety of worldSchools have bomb drillsPeople build bomb shelters
28Fearing growth of communism Alger Hiss and Julius & Ethel Rosenberg convicted of spying for Soviet UnionSenator Joseph McCarthy recklessly accuses people of being communistAccusations based on little or no evidenceMcCarthyism: false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association
29Cold War & Virginia Heavy military expenditures benefit Virginia Hampton Roads; naval & air basesNorthern Virginia; Pentagon & companies contracting with government
31Growth of Communism Chinese Civil War Dividing up Korea Communist take over ChinaSmall democratic section of China exiled to TaiwanDividing up KoreaKorea divided at 38th parallelSoviets controlled North KoreaU.S. controlled South Korea
32US & USSR both remove their military from Korea, USSR supply N US & USSR both remove their military from Korea, USSR supply N. Korea w/ tanks, airplanes & $ to take over S. Korea.
33War begins (1950) North Korea invades South to unify Korea President Truman sees attack as act of Communist aggressionTruman dedicated to containment of communism & attacks North Korea
34Truman compares this to when Hitler began to take over Europe and the other countries appeased him, he decides to support S. Korea.Appeasement
35Fighting the warDouglas MacArthur leads U.S. forces deep into North KoreaChina comes to North Korea’s aidU.S. fears U.S.S.R. will get involved & start WW3
36MacArthur leads the troops and pinches the N MacArthur leads the troops and pinches the N. Koreans at the bottom of the peninsula.I Surrender!
37MacArthur pushes all the way up to the Yalu River!!
38This wigs out the Chinese who send in troops to push back the Americans.
39The Chinese outnumber the US and UN forces and push back, taking the capital of S. Korea, Seoul
41War ends (1953) Both armies fought to stalemate President Eisenhower negotiates peace with China & North Korea (cease fire)War ends with Korea still divided at 38th parallel*** Truman desegregated military in 1948; first war fought with an integrated military
42The Korean War In 1953, both sides called for a cease-fire The cease-fire is still in place today and is the reason why there are still 2 Koreas
43Eisenhower warned the Soviets that the US would follow a plan of MASSIVE RETALIATION if the US was bombed.
44U-2 Incident (1960) U.S. had spy plane flying over USSR USSR shoots it down; U.S. denies any of thisUSSR has body of pilot as evidence; great embarrassment to US
45GI Bill (nothing to do with Korean War) During WW2, FDR wanted returning veterans to be given great opportunities; GI Bill passedGives returning soldiers – payment for college tuition; low-interest home loan; unemployment pay up to six months
46Baby boomFollowing WW2, US economy was strong & it was a great time to start a family– about 75 million babies born!!!!