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The Cold War 1945-1989.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1989."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Part 1: Origins of the Cold War

3 End of WW2 Soviet Union occupies central & eastern Europe
Germany is divided between Soviets & Allies West Germany democratic government; achieved self-government East Germany dominated by Soviets; did not establish self-government


5 Improve your knowledge
Divided Berlin The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.

6 Japan occupied by US forces
Adopted democratic form of government Resumed self-government Became strong US ally

7 United Nations Established at Yalta Conference
Stalin want to charge Germany $20 billion Stalin would join war against Japan Disagreements over Poland Established United Nations Replaced League of Nations Goals: Prevent future global wars Solve differences peacefully & promote justice

8 YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

9 Cold War Lasted from end of WW2 to collapse of Soviet Union (1989)
Causes Economic & political differences between U.S. & Soviet Union U.S.: democratic government & capitalist economy Soviet Union: totalitarian government, communist economy, & satellite nations


11 Cold War policies Potsdam Conference
Meeting between Truman, Stalin, & Attlee Stalin insisted on German war payments Truman warned of secret US weapon

12 Truman Doctrine Focused on containment of communism
Resist communist aggression into other countries Keep Iron Curtain from advancing

13 Winston Churchill coins the phrase “Iron Curtain”

14 Communism spreads like a disease
Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease

15 Part 2: Cold War Heats Up

16 Marshall Plan U.S. did not want same mistakes as WW1
George C. Marshall writes plan for European economic recovery Leaving Europe on their own may cause countries to turn communist Building up other countries making allies & future partners European Recovery Plan; over $13 billion in aid to Europe (ERP)


18 Berlin Airlift Stalin tries cutting off West Berlin from Allies
Truman did not want to lose Berlin or risk war

19 British & US Air Forces deliver supplies to Berlin
13,000 tons of supplies arrived daily Soviets give up Berlin blockade *1 plane every 3 minutes *227,000 flights

20 Stalin removes the blockade when he realizes the allies are not going to give up their sector of Berlin.

21 Vittles, the boxer dog flew 131 missions with his owner, Lt
Vittles, the boxer dog flew 131 missions with his owner, Lt. Russ Steber, during the Berlin Airlift. Gen. Curtis LeMay ordered the parachute made for him to ensure his safety. Vittles accumulated around 2,000 flying hours, but never had to use the parachute

22 Halverson received the Bundesverdienstorden in 1974 and carried the placard for Germany during the Salt Lake City Olympic opening ceremony in 2002 US Air Force Lieutenant Gail Halverson throws chocolate and chewing gum with mini parachutes he made himself out of his aircraft in October 1948

23 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Alliance between U.S. & western European countries to prevent Soviet invasion of Western Europe Soviets alliance with Eastern Europe forming Warsaw Pact in response

24 Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany CAPITALISM Warsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR. COMMUNISM

25 Communist advances Soviet atomic threat
Evidence of Soviet nuclear explosion Race for hydrogen bomb

26 China falls to Communists
Mao Zedong establishes People’s Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists forced to retreat to Taiwan

27 Cold War at home Red Scare continued
World seemed divided between communist & democratic countries Communists develop nuclear weapons Both sides have nuclear buildup threatening safety of world Schools have bomb drills People build bomb shelters

28 Fearing growth of communism
Alger Hiss and Julius & Ethel Rosenberg convicted of spying for Soviet Union Senator Joseph McCarthy recklessly accuses people of being communist Accusations based on little or no evidence McCarthyism: false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association

29 Cold War & Virginia Heavy military expenditures benefit Virginia
Hampton Roads; naval & air bases Northern Virginia; Pentagon & companies contracting with government

30 Part 3: Korean War

31 Growth of Communism Chinese Civil War Dividing up Korea
Communist take over China Small democratic section of China exiled to Taiwan Dividing up Korea Korea divided at 38th parallel Soviets controlled North Korea U.S. controlled South Korea

32 US & USSR both remove their military from Korea, USSR supply N
US & USSR both remove their military from Korea, USSR supply N. Korea w/ tanks, airplanes & $ to take over S. Korea.

33 War begins (1950) North Korea invades South to unify Korea
President Truman sees attack as act of Communist aggression Truman dedicated to containment of communism & attacks North Korea

34 Truman compares this to when Hitler began to take over Europe and the other countries appeased him, he decides to support S. Korea. Appeasement

35 Fighting the war Douglas MacArthur leads U.S. forces deep into North Korea China comes to North Korea’s aid U.S. fears U.S.S.R. will get involved & start WW3

36 MacArthur leads the troops and pinches the N
MacArthur leads the troops and pinches the N. Koreans at the bottom of the peninsula. I Surrender!

37 MacArthur pushes all the way up to the Yalu River!!

38 This wigs out the Chinese who send in troops to push back the Americans.

39 The Chinese outnumber the US and UN forces and push back, taking the capital of S. Korea, Seoul

40 The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953]

41 War ends (1953) Both armies fought to stalemate
President Eisenhower negotiates peace with China & North Korea (cease fire) War ends with Korea still divided at 38th parallel *** Truman desegregated military in 1948; first war fought with an integrated military

42 The Korean War In 1953, both sides called for a cease-fire
The cease-fire is still in place today and is the reason why there are still 2 Koreas

43 Eisenhower warned the Soviets that the US would follow a plan of MASSIVE RETALIATION if the US was bombed.

44 U-2 Incident (1960) U.S. had spy plane flying over USSR
USSR shoots it down; U.S. denies any of this USSR has body of pilot as evidence; great embarrassment to US

45 GI Bill (nothing to do with Korean War)
During WW2, FDR wanted returning veterans to be given great opportunities; GI Bill passed Gives returning soldiers – payment for college tuition; low-interest home loan; unemployment pay up to six months

46 Baby boom Following WW2, US economy was strong & it was a great time to start a family – about 75 million babies born!!!!

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