Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1989 Part 1: Origins of the Cold War."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War
Part 1: Origins of the Cold War
I.End of WW2 A.Soviet Union occupies central & eastern Europe B.Germany is divided between Soviets & Allies 1.West Germany democratic government; achieved self- government 2.East Germany dominated by Soviets; did not establish self- government
Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
C.Japan occupied by US forces 1.Adopted democratic form of government 2.Resumed self-government 3.Became strong US ally
II.United Nations A.Established at Yalta Conference 1.Stalin want to charge Germany $20 billion 2.Stalin would join war against Japan 3.Disagreements over Poland 4.Established United Nations B.Replaced League of Nations C.Goals: 1.Prevent future global wars 2.Solve differences peacefully & promote justice
YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
III.Cold War A.Lasted from end of WW2 to collapse of Soviet Union (1989) B.Causes 1.Economic & political differences between U.S. & Soviet Union 2.U.S.: democratic government & capitalist economy 3.Soviet Union: totalitarian government, communist economy, & satellite nations
IV.Cold War policies A.Potsdam Conference 1.Meeting between Truman, Stalin, & Attlee 2.Stalin insisted on German war payments 3.Truman warned of secret US weapon
B.Truman Doctrine 1.Focused on containment of communism 2.Resist communist aggression into other countries 3.Keep Iron Curtain from advancing
Winston Churchill coins the phrase “Iron Curtain”
Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease
Part 2: Cold War Heats Up
I.Marshall Plan A.U.S. did not want same mistakes as WW1 B.George C. Marshall writes plan for European economic recovery 1.Leaving Europe on their own may cause countries to turn communist 2.Building up other countries making allies & future partners 3.European Recovery Plan; over $13 billion in aid to Europe (ERP)
II.Berlin Airlift A.Stalin tries cutting off West Berlin from Allies B.Truman did not want to lose Berlin or risk war
C.British & US Air Forces deliver supplies to Berlin 1.13,000 tons of supplies arrived daily 2.Soviets give up Berlin blockade *1 plane every 3 minutes *227,000 flights
Stalin removes the blockade when he realizes the allies are not going to give up their sector of Berlin.
Vittles, the boxer dog flew 131 missions with his owner, Lt. Russ Steber, during the Berlin Airlift. Gen. Curtis LeMay ordered the parachute made for him to ensure his safety. Vittles accumulated around 2,000 flying hours, but never had to use the parachute
Halverson received the Bundesverdienstorden in 1974 and carried the placard for Germany during the Salt Lake City Olympic opening ceremony in 2002 US Air Force Lieutenant Gail Halverson throws chocolate and chewing gum with mini parachutes he made himself out of his aircraft in October 1948
III.North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) A.Alliance between U.S. & western European countries to prevent Soviet invasion of Western Europe B.Soviets alliance with Eastern Europe forming Warsaw Pact in response
Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany CAPITALISM CAPITALISM Warsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR. COMMUNISM
IV.Communist advances A.Soviet atomic threat 1.Evidence of Soviet nuclear explosion 2.Race for hydrogen bomb
B.China falls to Communists 1.Mao Zedong establishes People’s Republic of China 2.Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists forced to retreat to Taiwan
V.Cold War at home A.Red Scare continued 1.World seemed divided between communist & democratic countries 2.Communists develop nuclear weapons 3.Both sides have nuclear buildup threatening safety of world a.Schools have bomb drills b.People build bomb shelters
B.Fearing growth of communism 1.Alger Hiss and Julius & Ethel Rosenberg convicted of spying for Soviet Union 2.Senator Joseph McCarthy recklessly accuses people of being communist a.Accusations based on little or no evidence b.McCarthyism: false accusations based on rumor or guilt by association
C.Cold War & Virginia 1.Heavy military expenditures benefit Virginia a.Hampton Roads; naval & air bases b.Northern Virginia; Pentagon & companies contracting with government
Part 3: Korean War
I.Growth of Communism A.Chinese Civil War 1.Communist take over China 2.Small democratic section of China exiled to Taiwan B.Dividing up Korea 1.Korea divided at 38 th parallel 2.Soviets controlled North Korea 3.U.S. controlled South Korea
US & USSR both remove their military from Korea, USSR supply N. Korea w/ tanks, airplanes & $ to take over S. Korea.
II.War begins (1950) A.North Korea invades South to unify Korea B.President Truman sees attack as act of Communist aggression C.Truman dedicated to containment of communism & attacks North Korea
Truman compares this to when Hitler began to take over Europe and the other countries appeased him, he decides to support S. Korea.
III.Fighting the war A.Douglas MacArthur leads U.S. forces deep into North Korea B.China comes to North Korea’s aid C.U.S. fears U.S.S.R. will get involved & start WW3
MacArthur leads the troops and pinches the N. Koreans at the bottom of the peninsula. I Surrender!
MacArthur pushes all the way up to the Yalu River!! Yalu River
This wigs out the Chinese who send in troops to push back the Americans.
The Chinese outnumber the US and UN forces and push back, taking the capital of S. Korea, Seoul
The Shifting Map of Korea [ ]
IV.War ends (1953) A.Both armies fought to stalemate B.President Eisenhower negotiates peace with China & North Korea (cease fire) C.War ends with Korea still divided at 38 th parallel *** Truman desegregated military in 1948; first war fought with an integrated military
The Korean War In 1953, both sides called for a cease-fire The cease-fire is still in place today and is the reason why there are still 2 Koreas
Eisenhower warned the Soviets that the US would follow a plan of MASSIVE RETALIATION if the US was bombed.
V.U-2 Incident (1960) A.U.S. had spy plane flying over USSR B.USSR shoots it down; U.S. denies any of this C.USSR has body of pilot as evidence; great embarrassment to US
VI.GI Bill (nothing to do with Korean War) A.During WW2, FDR wanted returning veterans to be given great opportunities; GI Bill passed B.Gives returning soldiers – payment for college tuition; low- interest home loan; unemployment pay up to six months
VII.Baby boom A.Following WW2, US economy was strong & it was a great time to start a family B – about 75 million babies born!!!!