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1. Judeo Christian Perspective and democracy Every person is born with worth and dignity because they were created by GOD Every person has the ability.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Judeo Christian Perspective and democracy Every person is born with worth and dignity because they were created by GOD Every person has the ability."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Judeo Christian Perspective and democracy Every person is born with worth and dignity because they were created by GOD Every person has the ability to choose between doing good and doing wrong Every person has the responsibility to help others in need and the community

2 2. Greco Roman Views and democracy Citizens should participate in government World has natural laws Democracy can be protected by having branches of government Written law

3 3. Ideas of Tyranny Tyrant- a leader who takes power illegally and abuses that power

4 4.Plato Greek philosopher Wrote the Republic Tyrants are bad because he loves his power so much he will to anything to maintain it. Rulers who have too much freedom become tyrants

5 5. Aristotle Student of Plato Wrote: Politics Tyrants act selfishly and against the will and benefit of the people

6 6. Influence of the US Constitution Federalism- Power is shared between national government and state governments Separation of Powers- 3 separate branches Popular Sovereignty- Government get their power and authority from the PEOPLE Individual Rights- guarantees to each citizen (Bill of Rights)

7 7. John Locke ( enlightenment) – Natural Rights: Life, Liberty,and Property – People form government to protect these rights – Government gets its authority from the people – Influence Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence

8 8. Montesquieu ( Enlightenment) Separation of power control government – 3 Branches: Legislative, Judicial, Executive Influence James Madison- the father of the US Constitution

9 9. Rousseau ( Enlightenment) Social Contract exists between citizens and the government Influenced: Simon Bolivar-revolutionary leader for democracy and independence in Latin America

10 10. Documents of Democracy Magna Carta (1215 England) English Bill of Rights (1689) American Declaration of Independence (1776) French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen(1789) U.S Bill of Rights (1791)

11 9. American Revolution 1775-1781 1 st in a series of war for independence French Revolution 1789-1790 Latin America Wars for Independence (Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia and more) 1810- 1824

12 12.French Revolution Overthrow French OLD REGIME that divided people into 3 ESTATES King Louis XVI creates economic and social injustice The 3 rd Estate names itself National Assembly and takes over the government Radicals take over the government- Robespierre leads the COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC SAFETY and starts the REIGN OF TERROR Napoleon Bonaparte takes power and restores order as dictator

13 13.European Nationalism after Napoleon By 1812 Napoleon controlled most of Europe Conquered lands rumble with nationalism Napoleon is defeated and exiled- 1815

14 14.Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) After defeat of Napoleon Goal: Weaken France and Restore balance of power and monarchies in Europe Metternich of Austria plays important role

15 15.Revolution of 1848 people in Europe want their own Nation States and revolt again monarchies. Result of Napoleon conquering much of Europe….stirred up feelings of nationalism that did not go away.

16 16. Industrial Revolution Why was England first? Economic Strength – Banks and new markets and investors Geography and Natural Resources – Coal, harbors, rivers, isolation from Europe Population Growth – Agricultural Revolution ended Famines – Lots of Workers Political Stability – Not interrupted by war

17 17.Inventions and Social Change James Watt- Steam Engine Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin Henry Bessemer- made iron into steel Louis Pasteur- pasteurization Thomas Edison- Improved Electric light Railroads, Communication

18 18.Population Shifts During Industrial Revolution Population Growth Rural to Urban Migration Cities- had factory work, became centers for markets and banks Cities were overcrowded, polluted, terrible sanitation, streets full of waste and contaminated water, poor living condition, spread of disease

19 19.Evolution of work and labor End of Slave trade by early 1800s Immigration from Europe and Asia to North America Transportation made mass migration possible Division of labor Unions use collective bargaining and strike to improve wages and working conditions

20 20.Components of Industrial Economy Entrepreneurship- starting new businesses – Need resources Resources – Natural resources – Capital- Money – Labor

21 21.Responses to Capitalism: Utopianism People live and work together sharing goods and property

22 22.Response to Capitalism: SOCIALISM Government control of major industries

23 23.Response to Capitalism: COMMUNISM workers should take control of all the factors of production Complete control by the government

24 24.Classicism Sought to imitate arts of ancient Greece and Rome

25 25.Romanticism emphasized love of nature, emotional expression, individual experience, ordinary people

26 26.Imperialism The policy of a powerful nation dominating the politics, economy, and society of another nation Causes: nationalism, economic competition, racism, missionary impulse Effects: By 1800 Europe controls Africa, Asia, and Latin American : European control trade and colonies are dependant on Europe Social Darwinism- believed that Europeans were superior - justified imperialism

27 27.Locations of Colonial Rule Colonizing nationIn Africa?In Asia?In South America Great BritainXXX FranceXXX GermanyXX ItalyX JapanX The NetherlandsXX BelgiumX SpainXX PortugalXX The United StatesX

28 28.Struggles for Independence from Colonization Haiti- Toussaint L’Overture leads independence from colonial rule (1804) South America- Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin liberate many countries from Europe (1809-1825)

29 29.Causes of WWI Nationalism Militarism Alliance System: – Triple Alliance- Austria Hungary, Germany, and Italy – Triple Entente-France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy (1915) US (1917) The Powder Keg: The Balkan Peninsula – Serbian nationalist from Bosnia assassinates Franz Ferdinand of Austria Hungary June 28,1914

30 30.War on 2 Fronts Western Front – Battle of the Marne ( September 1914) : Victory for France and Great Britain – Battle of Verdun(1916) – Battle of the Somme (1916) – Battle of Ypres ( 1914 and 1918) Eastern Front – Battle of Tannenberg(1914)-German victory Russia Trench Warfare- Stalemate and huge casualties

31 31.Turning Points of WWI Russian Revolution – Nov. 7, 1917-Bolsheviks take over – Russia and Germany sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and Russia pulls out of the war US Enters WWI – Neutral until 1917: Germany announces unrestricted submarine warfare – April 2,1917 US enters war on the side of the Allies November 11,1918 – Armistice is signed: end to fighting

32 32.Human Costs of WWI Total Mobilized forces Killed or Died WoundedPrisoners or Missing Total Casualties Causalit y Rate Central Powers 22,850,0003,386,2008,388,4483,629,82915,404,47767.1% Allies42,188,8105,142,63112,800,7064,121,70622,064,42752.3%

33 33.Human Rights Violations and Genocide Armenian Genocide – Armenians were an ethnic minority in the Ottoman Empire – April 24,1915- Extreme nationalists vowing to create a Turkish-only state began forcing Armenians from their homes. – Some were killed others were forced to march to the Syrian Desert – Persecution continued : 1915-1918 and again in 1920- 1923 – In 1915-1916 an estimated 600,000 Armenians died

34 34.The Treaty of Versailles 14 points: Wilson’s Plan for peace – Self Determination- allowing people to decide their government – End to secret treaties – League of Nations- Peace keeping organization Big Four- Italy, France, GB, US Terms – League of Nations – Germany loses Alsace Lorraine to France – Loses Colonies – Reduction in army – Pay Reparations: $33 billion

35 35.Europe after WWI

36 36.Post WWI Europe Shock and disillusionment Economic Trouble Political instability Rise of Totalitarian governments

37 37.Artists in the West after WWI Lost Generation: American writers in Paris ( Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Gertrude Stein) Art: World of dreams and fantasy, see shapes in new ways (Picasso)

38 38.Russian Revolution Causes: – Suffering under monarchy/autocracy – Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II – Russian defeat in Russo Japanese War 1905 – Bloody Sunday- massacre of unarmed protestor in 1905 – WWI – March Revolution 1917- soldiers join protestors Consequences: – Bolshevik Party led by Lenin – Collectivized farms – Banks are nationalized – Treaty of Brest Litovsk – Civil War- Red vs Whites – Lenin uses GULAGS (camps)

39 39.Stalinist Russia Economic Control – Command Economy – Collective Farms to produce food for the state Political Control – Used police terror – Jailed and executed opponents Cultural Control – Controlled newspapers – Destroyed churches and synagogues – Use propoganda Terror – Estimated 8-13 million people died – Ukraine-5 million died from famine caused by Government

40 40.Totalitarian Regimes Germany- Hitler, Nazi Italy- Mussolini, Facist Soviet Union- Stalin, Communist

41 41.Drive for Empire Germany, Italy, Japan Italy- – New Roman Empire – Ethiopia 1935 – Albania 1939 Japan – Needed natural resources and new markets – Manchuria 1931 – China 1937 – Rape of Nanking Germany – Rebuild army and assert strength – Rhineland1936 – Austria 1938 – Sudetenland 1938 – Czechoslovakia 1939 – Hitler-Stalin Pact 1939 ( Non-Aggression Pact)

42 42.US and Europe before WWII Economic Depression German and Italian Aggression Appeasement-Britain and France’s policy toward German aggression Isolationism- US foreign policy

43 43. WWII Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, and Japan Allied Powers: GB, USSR, USA

44 44. Pearl Harbor Japan bombs Pearl Harbor Dec. 7 1941 US enters War

45 45.Battle of Stalingrad Feb 1943 German forces surrender to Russians

46 46. D-Day June 6,1944 Massive land and sea attack in Normandy, France 1 st day of Allied invasion France

47 47.Yalta Conference Big 3- US, USSR, GB Plan to divide up Germany after WW2

48 48.Iron curtain Term made by Churchill Boundary that divide communist Eastern Europe and non communist Western Europe

49 49.Leaders in WW2 LeaderRoleAlliance Winston ChurchillPrime Minister of GBAllies F.D RooseveltPresident of the USAllies Emperor HirohitoEmperor of JapanAxis Adolf HitlerDictator of GermanyAxis Benito MussoliniDictator of ItalyAxis Joseph StalinDictator of USSRAllies Douglas MacArthurUS Army General( Pacific)Allies Dwight EisenhowerUS Army General (Europe)Allies

50 50.The Holocaust “Total Destruction” Nazi Ideology – Aryans were the “master race” – Lebensraum-”living space” need for population growth Nuremberg Laws (1935)- stripped Jews of citizenship and rights Kristallnacht (1938)- “night of broken glass” Ghettos (1940)- put into crowded and isolated areas Final Solution- genocide

51 51.The Cold War US and USSR (Superpowers) competed for dominance Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 – Brinkmanship- willingness to go to the brink or edge of war

52 52.Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan Before WW2 US Foreign Policy: isolationism After WW2 US Foreign Policy: Containment ( to contain the spread of Communism) – Truman Doctrine: US will offer aid to countries threatened by communist expansion – Marshall Plan: foreign aid to 16 democratic European nations to help them recover from WW2 US helps anti-communists in China, Korea, and Vietnam US supports non-communist dictators in Cuba, Zaire, and Chile

53 53.Transformation in China Mao Tse-Tung wins Civil War – 1949 – People’s Republic of China Great Leap Forward (1958) – Plan to modernize (caused massive starvation) Cultural Revolution – Attack on “counter-revolutionaries” Tiananmen Square (1989) – Students protest for democratic reform – Government killed 1000s of protesters

54 54.Resistance in Eastern Europe After WW2 USSR dominated most of Eastern Europe Nations that resisted & faced Soviet force Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland Poland 1980 – Lech Walesa forms Solidarity

55 55.Gorbachev 1985 Gorbachev announces policy of: – Glasnost: openness of information and ideas – Perestroika: Economic restructuring

56 56.Creation of Israeli State Zionism – Movement to unite Jews around the world and settle them in a Jewish State Balfour Declaration ( 1917) – GB promises to support zionists 1947 UN calls for partition of Palestine State of near constant war

57 57.Collapse of Soviet Union 1960 and 1970 Stagnation – Economic problems – Arms race is too expensive – Resistance from communist states 1980s-Loosening of Soviet Control – Perestroika – Limit arms race – Glasnost

58 58.International Cooperation United Nations NATO Warsaw Pact OAS SEATO

59 59.Modern China Deng Xiaoping becomes leader in late 1970s – 4 Modernizations Private ownership & profit allowed 1990s economy is liberalized and life for many Chinese improved- Tiananmen Square- 1989 student protest

60 60.Modern Mexico Over half of Mexicans living in poverty with low standard of living Zapatistas: revolutionary group in Chiapas, Mexico who want aid for indigenous people ( native) 1994 NAFTA-( North American Free Trade Agreement) Increases trade among Mexico, US and Canada 2000 Election of Vicente Fox ended single party rule by PRI.

61 61.Conditions for Democracy Free elections Citizen Participation Individual Rights Constitutional Government

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