Presentation on theme: "ALCIDE DE GASPERI A Statesman for Europe Matteo Luigi Napolitano."— Presentation transcript:
ALCIDE DE GASPERI A Statesman for Europe Matteo Luigi Napolitano
Effects of WW2 The Second World War is a war never conceived before, and this for many reasons. If at the end of WW1 the communist danger is proxy to zero due to Russian weakness. The situation is totally different after the WW2, with a USSR very strong, presenting herself as the real winner of the war. Hence the European unification process after WW2 gains its momentum as a anticommunist and an antisoviet process.
Yes to American help if Europeanism grows UK Foreign Minister Bevin wants a Western European political union without renouncing to American economic help (ERP). In any case Bevin does not want to make an anti- soviet alliance. He does prefer an anti-german alliance or even a regional alliance based on art. 51 of the UN Chart. France, on her part, wants a sharp anti-German alliance.
The developments The Prague coup (February 1948). France changes her position, since an anti- German directive makes no sense. In this framework, Italy becomes very important in order to create a new Western alliance conceived as an anti-soviet bulwark. Invitation to Italy to adhere to the future Brussels Pact. President Truman supports this pact.
What Italy is going to do? Alcide De Gasperi refuses the invitation to enter in the the Brussels Pact. Why? De Gasperi thinks that the new Western Pact is too much military and too little Europeanist. De Gasperi does not share the emotional anti-German approach that France wants to give the new Pact. De Gasperi cannot engage Italy before Italian political elections of April 1948.
After Italian Elections After Italian Political Elections of 1948, De Gasperi fine-tunes his position on the Western Union. He declares that Italy could enter in a Western Unione only on a parity level: namely he aims at revising the Italian Treaty of peace of 1947. This is not accepted by the British and French partners.
De Gasperi, a first-hour European? This move does not put De Gasperi among the followers of a total Federal Europeanist idea. European themes get no much attention and time in Italy’s 1948 Parlamentarian discussions. In fact Italian Parliament, when treating about international topics, reaffirms Italian rights to pre-fascist colonies or even on the Trieste Free Territory.
The shifting point Italian position shifts when discussions on a North Atlantic Alliance grow up and the Federalists launch a programme regarding the United States of Europe. At this point De Gasperi undestands that Italy needs to get involved in a European building process, by renouncing to part on her national sovereignty.
Beyond the Brussels Pact De Gasperi’s and Sforza’s Europeanism goes beyond the Brussels Pact by a Federalist idea by degrees, based mainly on functions: a) To make the OEEC a permanent structure. b) To collaborate also in cultural and social fields. c) To create common institutions in the OEEC.
De Gasperi changes his mind Great Britain and US do not share Italian vision. De Gasperi fears isolation. De Gasperi Address on the moral basis of democracy in Europe (20 November 1948) and on the importance of Christendom. De Gasperi meets Spaak in Bussels: any project on a future European Community shall be considered only within the Brussels Pact members (hence: only the French and the British projects are in pole position - not the Italian one).
De Gasperi’s support to the building of Europe De Gasperi and Sforza praise the British project, but reaffirm Italy’s right to be considered on an equal foot among the partners (December 3, 1948). This does mean no more to aim at revising the Italian Peace Treaty. Italy is invited to make part of the future Council of Europe (27-28 January 1949).
Italy in the Western System Question of the participation of Italy in the North Atlantic Treaty. Monnet’s proposal of a new kind of European union. De Gasperi’s address at Sorrento (Juin 14, 1950): he invites France and Western Germany to build as soon as possibile a Europe based on peace and justice. Italian line: no more deviations, loyalty and Europeanism. April 18, 1951: CECA Treaty.
Opposition to the CECA in Italy Socialists and communists. Italian industrialists. The Trieste problem. Delays in ratifying the CECA Treaty. De Gasperi underlines mainly the Franco- German reappacification nature of the Treaty, rather that its «Communitarian» nature.
De Gasperi and the European Army project De Gasperi feels that the Council of Europe is risking to die if it fails to giving itself a more concrete aspect. De Gasperi’s proposal to by-pass the prohibition to discuss military questions in the Council of Europe is supported by Churchill. Acheson Plan to increase American forces in Europe if a stable European force with a German contingent is created (15 August 1950). Italy supports this plan.
Towards the EDC Pleven Plan (October 27, 1950). France wants to make the plan depending on the Schuman Plan for the CECA (Schuman Plan), but the US raise objections to this purpose, since this would mean further delays. Italy makes it clear that only by developing the Atlantic Community it is possible to create a European Defence Community.
The EDC French ancient fears. The role of the US vis-à-vis the EDC bulding process. Santa Margherita Ligure meeting (February 12-13, 1951). De Gasperi supports the Pleven Plan. De Gasperi forms his seventh Cabinet and also takes for himself the Italian Foreign Ministry (July 26, 1951). September 1951: De Gasperi travel to the US. Strasbourg Assembly (December 10, 1951): De Gasperi’s proposal to give the new Community a common «parliament» which would approve a European Constitution within six months from his birth.
The EDC - 2 Atlantic Council in Lisbon (february 1952). Paris Treaty (May 27, 1952). De Gasperi’s proposal to unify the two CECA and EDC Assemblies and to make it possibile that CECA Commission study a plan for a federal bicameral Assembly (July 26 and 27, 1952). This proposal is developed by De Gasperi in Aquisgrana, on September 24, 1952
EDC Failure Delays in ratifying EDC Treaty. This happens while CECA Commission has already prepared a text of European Constitution (complying with the art. 38 or the EDC Treaty). The US do not consider positively Italian and French delays (January 31, 1953). Trieste question. Italian political elections. Failure of the Scelba Law and De Gasperi resignation (June 1953). Failure of the EDC.
Conclusions De Gasperi’s Europeanism is a)Western-oriented. b)Not Functionalist tout court. c)Not federalist tout court. d)Based on a careful reminding of the errors European States made in the recent past. e)Europe as a common heritage. f)Italy as a strong defender of a Western democratic Europe.