2Outline of the Dayam Paper 1 Content Overview am Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Causes of the Second World War am BREAK Causes of the FWW pm LUNCH pm Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations pm BREAK pm Exam Technique
6Paper 1: Topic 1 Paper 1: Origins of the First World War Key Question: Why were there two armed camps in Europe in 1914?Development of the Triple Alliance, Entente Cordiale and Anglo-Russian Agreement: Britain’s emergence from splendid isolationKaiser Wilhelm II’s aims in foreign policy; Weltpolitik; a “place in the sun”; attitudes towards Great Britain; development of the NavyThe Moroccan Crises of 1905 and 1911 and their effects on the alliancesThe Bosnian Crisis and its effects on the alliancesThe arms race – military and naval: why did countries increase the size of their armies? The Anglo-German Naval RaceKey Question: Why did war break out in 1914?Aims of the Austria-Hungary and Serbia in the Balkans: the role of the Black HandThe assassination at Sarajevo: Gavrilo Princip; the response of Austria-Hungary; the ultimatum and Serbia’s responseThe events leading to war; the role of the alliances in 1914The Schlieffen Plan and its effects on the outbreak of war; its part in bringing about Great Britain’s declaration of war on GermanyResponsibility for the outbreak of war and the escalation of the conflict
7MAIN causes of the FWW M Militarism A Alliances I Imperialism N Nationalism
8What were the MAIN causes? M - militarism (increasing the size of your army or navy)A – alliances (countries promising to help each other)I – imperialism (powerful countries wanting to increase their power by taking other countries)N – nationalism (being prepared to fight for ones country)See 20th Century book – page 7THINKCan you think of any examples of how the main European countries tried to increase their power?
13Sage and Scribe SCRIBE NAME: Who was King of Germany in 1900? When was the Triple Alliance signed?Which countries made up the Triple Alliance?What does “splendid isolationism mean”?What two things happened that made Britain think about ending it’s policy of “splendid isolationism”?When was the Entente Cordiale signed?Which countries signed the Entente Cordiale?What does Entente Cordiale mean?What was the German foreign policy called? (In German or English)When was the Triple Entente signed?
14Rebellion in FezKaiser visits TangierThe Kaiser states he supports an independent MoroccoKaiser was humiliatedGermany was given two marshy strips of land in the French CongoA conference was held at Algeciras, SpainBritain believed Wilhelm was trying to set up a naval baseA-H supported Moroccan independenceFrance was given overall control of Morocco but not allowed any military presenceGermany sent the gun boat the Panther to protect German interestsItaly opposed Germany – this weakened the TAThe Kaiser was testing the strength of the Entente CordialeBrought Europe close to warBritain signed a secret naval agreement with France to protect the north coastGermany was annoyed and humiliatedBritain and Russia supported FranceBritain mobilised it’s navy in GibraltarFrance felt more confident of Britain’s supportGermany wanted to expand it’s empire as part of WELTPOLITIK
15Morocco 1. Tangier, 1905-06 2. Agadir, 1911 Kaiser visits Tangier France was given overall control of Morocco but not allowed any military presenceGermany sent the gun boat the Panther to protect German interestsKaiser visits TangierRebellion in FezThe Kaiser states he supports an independent MoroccoGermany was given two marshy strips of land in the French CongoA-H supported Moroccan independenceBritain believed Wilhelm was trying to set up a naval baseGermany wanted to expand it’s empire as part of WELTPOLITIKItaly opposed Germany – this weakened the TABritain signed a secret naval agreement with France to protect the north coastBritain and Russia supported FranceThe Kaiser was testing the strength of the Entente CordialeBrought Europe close to warA conference was held at Algeciras, SpainBritain mobilised it’s navy in GibraltarFrance felt more confident of Britain’s supportGermany was annoyed and humiliatedKaiser was humiliated
18ANNEXED = a country is taken and made part of another empire
19Bosnia,Austrian leader Franz Josef taking Bosnia-Herzegovina from the Turkish Sultan
20Bosnian Crisis,Ottoman Empire (Turkish Empire) was breaking upSerbia wanted to unite all SLAVS – YugoslaviaRussia and Serbia = alliesRussia called for an international conference to discuss BosniaA-H refused to attendGermany supported A-H because of their support during MoroccoRussia had to back down as it was not ready to fight GermanySerbia wanted revenge against A-HRussia was humiliated and now unlikely to back downA-H had the support of Germany – even if it meant war this was important in 1914Russia became closer to Br and Fr
21Increase in Spending Arms Race and the First World War: There was a four-fold increase in defence spending of the great powers,
22Arms Race and the First World War: This British postcard interprets Kaiser Wilhelm’s statement about wanting ‘a place in the sun’ – it shows him making everybody in the world bow down to him.IMPERIALISM led to an arms race … in 1900, Kaiser Wilhelm said that GERMANY wanted ‘a place in the sun’ – i.e., that Germany wanted an empire as big as Britain’s. This TERRIFIED the British.
23Attitude towards war Arms Race and the First World War: But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy. (GERMANY was especially militaristic.)
24Arms Race and the First World War: As well as their STANDING ARMIES, the nations introduced CONSCRIPTION, so they also had large numbers of trained RESERVES. All the nations except Britain had HUGE armies.
25Navies Arms Race and the First World War: If GERMANY was to have an empire, it needed a navy, so in 1900 Admiral Tirpitz introduced the German Navy Law, which announced a huge programme of building warships.
26Navies Arms Race and the First World War: Both BRITAIN and GERMANY started building Dreadnoughts – the most advanced class of warship in the world. The Dreadnought essentially reduced everybody else’s number of warships to zero.
28Arms Race and the First World War: In the end, Britain’s built many more Dreadnoughts than Germany.
29“we want eight, we won’t wait” “A German fleet is a luxury not Naval Race17BritainconfidenceconscriptionfunfminutenGermany“we want eight, we won’t wait”“A German fleet is a luxury notA necessity.”weaponsrivalrydreadnought29France
30Effects Arms Race and the First World War: The arms race was tied in to both NATIONALISM and IMPERIALISM. It increased SUSPICION and HATRED of other nations - and it gave the nations the WHEREWITHAL to wage war.
32Assassination Where is Sarajevo? Who was visiting Sarajevo in June 1914?Why was he visiting Sarajevo?What was the name of the terrorist group planning to assassinate him?When was this group formed?How many members did this group have by 1914?What were the aims of this group?Which country was the group connected to?What was the name of the assassin?
33Assassination Where is Sarajevo?Bosnia Who was visiting Sarajevo in June 1914?Archduke Franz FerdinandWhy was he visiting Sarajevo?To encourage positive relations between A-H and the local peopleWhat was the name of the terrorist group planning to assassinate him? Black Hand GangWhen was this group formed?1911How many members did this group have by 1914?2,500What were the aims of this group? unite all Serbs in to a greater SerbiaWhich country was the group connected to?SerbiaWhat was the name of the assassin? Gavrillo Princip
34Steps to War 28th June Russia offers support to Serbia 6th July Germany declares war on France; German troops enter Belgium23rd JulyA-H sends ultimatum to Serbia24th JulyFrance declares war on Germany28th JulyA-H declares war on Serbia30th JulyGermany promises to support A-H= “blank cheque”1st AugustA-H declares war on Russia3rd AugustRussia mobilises it’s armed forces4th AugustAssassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand5th AugustGermany declares war on Belgium; Britain declares war on Germany6th AugustGermany declares war on Russia
35Details… Name the Count who wanted to go to war with Serbia How many points did A-H send Serbia in their ultimatum?Which point did Serbia not agree too?Why?What was the German plan of attack called?What was it designed to avoid?What was the treaty with Belgium called?When was it signed?
36Details…Name the Count who wanted to go to war with Serbia. Count HotzendorfHow many points did A-H send Serbia in their ultimatum? 10pointsWhich point did Serbia not agree too?point 6Why? Gave A-H control of Serbia’s court systemWhat was the German plan of attack called?Schlieffen PlanWhat was it designed to avoid?A war on two fronts (sides)What was the treaty with Belgium called?Treaty of LondonWhen was it signed? 1839
38Effect of the SP Britain had no intention of supporting Russia Would have been difficult for Britain to convince the people to go to war over FranceBELGIUM = opportunity1839 – Treaty of London = “scrap of paper” by the KaiserBritish people shocked by German aggression towards a small country like Belgium!
39Which country was responsible for war? ResponsibilityFranceThe French were determined to get revenge on Germany for defeat in 1871 and their attempts to expand in to Morocco.BritainThe British took part in the naval race and supported France during the Moroccan Crises; it also declared war on Germany in August 1914RussiaTsar (King of Russia) fully supported SerbiaGermanyWeltpolitik threatened Britain and FranceA-HA-H was determined to crush SerbiaSerbiaSerbia was determined to create a Greater Serbia and the BHG assassinated Franz Ferdinand
40Paper 1: Topic 2Paper 1: Peacemaking and the League of NationsKey Question: How did the Treaty of Versailles establish peace?The Paris Peace Conference; the aims of Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson: the Fourteen PointsThe main terms of the Treaty of Versailles; Diktat; territorial changes; military restrictions, war guilt and reparationsThe strengths and weaknesses of the Treaty of Versailles: Why Germany objected to itKey Question: Why did the League of Nations fail in its aims to keep peace?Membership : why and how it changed; implications for the League of NationsOrganisation, powers and peace keeping role: the Assembly; the Council; the Permanent Court of Justice; military and economic sanctionsThe Manchurian Crisis : events; actions taken by the League; effect on the League as a peacekeeping forceThe Abyssinian Crisis : events; action taken by the League; effect on the League as a peacekeeping forceThe reasons for the collapse of the League
47Cripple Germany’s economy Prevent future threats from GermanyGermany should be punished but not too harshlyA harsh treaty might lead to another warMake Germany sufferInternational cooperation – League of NationsSelf-determinationBritain and Germany to trade in the future
48Clemenceau Wilson Lloyd-George Cripple Germany’s economyPrevent future threats from GermanyMake Germany sufferInternational cooperation – League of NationsBritain and Germany to trade in the futureGermany should be punished but not too harshlyA harsh treaty might lead to another warWilsonLloyd-GeorgeSelf-determination
50Question 1How many soldiers were the German army allowed under the Terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Write the answer down.Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George made up the Big Who? Write the answer down.Multiple these two answers. Now write the answer to question 1 down.100,000 x 3 = 300,000
51Question 2How many battleships was Germany allowed under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Write the answer down.How many points did Wilson have? Write the answer down.What number was the War Guilt Clause? Write the answer down.Multiple these three answers. Write the answer for question 2 down.6 x 14 x 231 = 19,404
52Question 3 Subtract the question 2 answer from your question 1 answer. Now write the answer to question 3 down.300,00019,404 –= 280,596
53Question 4How many years were there between the Treaty of Versailles being signed and the time the reparations figure was set? Write the answer down.How many years was the Saar region to be given to France? Write the answer down.Multiple these two answers. Now write the answer to question 4 down.2 x 15 = 30
54Question 5Add the answer from question 3 with the answer to question 4.Now write the answer to question 5 down.280, =
55Question 6To the nearest year – how many years did the First World War last? Write the answer down.Write the answer to question 6 down.4
56Question 7Add the answer from question 5 with the answer to question 6.Now write the answer to question 7 down.=
57Question 8What time did the Armistice ceasefire begin on 11th November 1918? Write the answer down.Write the answer to question 8 down.11
58Question 9 Subtract the question 8 answer from your question 7 answer. Your solution is:28063011 –280619
59Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June 1919 – 28/06/19 Solution280619Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June 1919 – 28/06/19
60Treaty of Versailles_______ TofVLandGuilt and CompensationMilitary
61Treaty of Versailles 28th June 1919 Danzig=Free CityAlsace-Lorraine=FranceNorth Schleswig=DenmarkTofVLandGuilt and CompensationMilitaryColonies = mandatesWest Prussia and Posen = PolandAnschluss forbiddenSaarland = LoN for 15 yearsArticle 231=War guilt clauseRhineland demilitarisedNo conscription£6.6billion set in 1921No subs or aircraftArmy limited to 100,0006 battleshipsYoung Plan 1929Pay until 1984!
62Was it fair? Yes it was fair… No it was not fair… 10% of land British and French casualties=9million750,000 homes destroyedBritain=£1billion in debt to USAFood shortagesDevastation in Belgium and FranceTreaty of Brest-Litovsk: 34%pop; 54% industry; 89% coalminesTreaties – St Germain (Austris)=lost Bosnia, Herzegovinian and Croatia; restiricted army to 30,000. Neuilly(Bulgaria)=Lost land to Greece and Yugoslavia; Armed forced limited to 20,000; £100million in reparations. Trianon (Hungary) = Lost land to Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia; lost 3 million people to other states; due to pay reparations. Sevres (Turkey) = Lost land to Greece other land became a LofN mandates; Palestine.10% of landAll colonies12.5% population50% of iron and steel industriesWar guilt clauseNo German representativeEconomy in ruinsArmy restrictions too smallGerman people split up
63Strengths and Weaknesses of the TofV Brought peace to EuropeGermany was left very unhappyFairer that other treaties – A-H was dividedGermany could not afford to make reparation paymentsGermany had imposed a much harsher treaty on Russia (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918)The treaty did not punish Germany enough to stop her seeking revengeWilson put too much faith in the loN
64Do you think this term was fair/unfair/unsure? Explain your answer. TASK: For each of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, say whether you think its main aim was:Do you think this term was fair/unfair/unsure? Explain your answer. Germany had to pay £6,600 million, called reparations, for the damage done during the war.Germany forbidden to have submarines or an air force. She could have a navy of only 6 battleships.Germany lost land in EuropeGermany could only have an army of 100,000 men.Germany’s colonies were given to Britain and France.Germany was split in two so that the newly created Poland could have access to the sea.Alsace-Lorraine given back to France.Germany could never unite with AustriaDemilitarised the Rhineland - Germany was not allowed to place any troops in the Rhineland, the strip of land, 50 miles wide, next to France.War Guilt: Germany had to accept the blame for starting the war.Germany could not join the League of Nations.
68Membership of the League BritainItaly1933Germany1933USSR1934USA191919291939
69Membership of the League FranceBritainItaly1937Japan1933Germany19261933USSR1934USANEVER JOINED191919291939
70THE OTHER STATES JOIN TOGETHER IF ONE STATE IS ATTACKED Covenant26 rules (articles)Registration of all treaties to avoid secret alliancesReduction of arms so no future arms raceCollective security to solve problemsCOLLECTIVE SECURITY =THE OTHER STATES JOIN TOGETHERIF ONE STATE IS ATTACKEDTO HELP
71The League of Nations AIMS Encourage co-operation Stop aggression Improvesocial conditionsDisarmament
72Structure The Council Met several times a year and in emergencies 5 permanent membersEach had right to veto any ideaThe AssemblyEach country one votePermanent court ofInternational JusticeBased at The HagueSettle disputes peacefullyNo power of enforcementThe SecretariatKept records - civil service
74What event is this source commenting on? What is the message of this cartoon?
75A member of the League is holding flowers and bowing to Japan The word Geneva iswritten on the postJapan represented bya man in an armyuniformBox with "Face -savingoutfit" written on it.Lady with the word"League" on her
76List the key events of the Manchurian crisis and explain how they show the failure of the League.
77List the key events of the Manchurian crisis and explain how they show the failure of the League. September Railway attacked in Japanese controlled ManchuriaItaly was putting it’s own interests first. Invading Manchuria in order to tackle problems brought on by the Depression of the 1930s.February 1932 – Manchukuo – Japan set up a puppet government in ManchuriaChina appealed to the LofN. Japan said it was solving a local problem and acted in this way as a form of self-defence.September 1932 – Lytton Report states that Japan acted unlawfullyThe LofN sent an official to investigate Japan’s claims of self-defence. The Report took 12mths to compile. The report was approved 42 votes to 1…Japan being the one!February 1933 – Japan invades the rest of ManchuriaDespite the LofN stating that Japan had done wrong nothing was done! Japan continued to expand on the same principle of self-defence. Economic sanctions were not an option as the USA was it’s main trading partner. Also Britain did not want to risk it’s colonies in SE Asia by upsetting Japan. It was too far away to start a war over.March 1933 – Japan withdrew from the League and invades Jehol provinceThe League was powerless. The League did not have the resources to remove Japan by force. Aggressive behaviour wins!
78Abyssinia - Timeline December 1934 October 1935 December 1935 May 1936 1937
79Abyssinia - Timeline December 1934 Italian troops provoke a clash at Wal WalOctober 1935Italian invasion beginsDecember 1935Britain and France produce Hoare-Laval Plan. Large parts of Abyssinia to be given to Italy in return for Italian withdrawal. Public outcry- plan abandonedMay 1936Haile Selassie was forced in to exile and the Italian conquest completeNovember 1936Rome-Berlin Axis signed1937Italy withdraws from the League
80Manchurian and Abyssinian Crises CAUSESEVENTSEFFECTS ON THE LEAGUEManchurian CrisisAbyssinian Crisis
81Abyssinia was the only independent Africa country in that area Wall Street Crash in 1929 meant that Japan lost trade with the USA.Japan invaded the next province JeholManchuria was rich in natural resourcesChina appealed to the League for help.Lytton Commission was set up to investigateChinese soldiers were accused of blowing up part of the Japanese railwayThe League condemned the actions of Japan and told Japan to leave the area.The League encouraged aggressive actions from Germany and ItalyWell at WalWal were attacked. Italy invaded.Mussolini wanted to increase Italy’s powerHaile Selassie appealed to the League for helpItaly wanted revenge for defeat in 1896The League had failed to deal effectively with JapanThe League imposed sanctions on glass, rubber and weaponsBritain and France were not willing to support the League by providing an armyBritain and France tried to get Italy to agree to the Hoare-Laval Pact – this would give Italy 2/3 of AbyssiniaLeague members were not willing to stop aggressive countriesBritain and France were undermining the LeagueThe League was no longer taken seriously
82CAUSES EVENTS EFFECTS ON THE LEAGUE Manchurian CrisisWall Street Crash in 1929 meant that Japan lost trade with the USA.Manchuria was rich in natural resourcesChinese soldiers were accused of blowing up part of the Japanese railwayChina appealed to the League for help.Lytton Commission was set up to investigateJapan invaded the next province JeholThe League condemned the actions of Japan and told Japan to leave the area.Britain and France were not willing to support the League by providing an armyThe League had failed to deal effectively with JapanThe League encouraged aggressive actions from Germany and ItalyAbyssinian CrisisAbyssinia was the only independent Africa country in that areaMussolini wanted to increase Italy’s powerItaly wanted revenge for defeat in 1896Well at WalWal were attacked. Italy invaded.Haile Selassie appealed to the League for helpBritain and France tried to get Italy to agree to the Hoare-Laval Pact – this would give Italy 2/3 of AbyssiniaThe League imposed sanctions on glass, rubber and weaponsLeague members were not willing to stop aggressive countriesBritain and France were undermining the LeagueThe League was no longer taken seriously
83Questions on the League Why did it fail?Economic depressionOrganisationAimsPowersUSSR/USABritain/FranceGermany/Italy/JapanAbyssinia/Manchuria
84The league of nations failed because it… WeakThe League did not have any real power. Apart from shame, sanctions didn’t work and it did not have it’s own army.AmericaThe strongest nation after the First World War never joined.StructureThe League’s organisation was disorganised so it took a long time to do anything. Members couldn’t agree but decisions had to be unanimous.DepressionWorld-wide depression causes countries to look for more land and power. Countries were more worried about themselves and not world peace.UnsuccessfulThe more the League failed the more people mistrusted it. In the end countries just ignored it.MembersThe League’s main members let it down.Big bulliesThe League showed it could deal with smaller countries in the 1920s. However when powerful countries like Germany, Italy and Japan defied the League the League was too weak to stop themTASK: Find an example to support each of these reasons.
85WeakThe League did not have any real power. Apart from shame, sanctions didn’t work and it did not have it’s own army.AmericaThe strongest nation after the First World War never joined.StructureThe League’s organisation was disorganised so it took a long time to do anything. Members couldn’t agree but decisions had to be unanimous.DepressionWorld-wide depression causes countries to look for more land and power. Countries were more worried about themselves and not world peace.UnsuccessfulThe more the League failed the more people mistrusted it. In the end countries just ignored it.MembersThe League’s main members let it down.Big bulliesThe League showed it could deal with smaller countries in the 1920s. However when powerful countries like Germany, Italy and Japan defied the League the League was too weak to stop them
86Source BA cartoon in Punch, a British magazine, 28 July The rabbit is saying ‘I don’t haveany weapons (I am practically defenceless) so I must defeat him with a powerful stare’.
87Source BA cartoon in Punch, a British magazine, 28 July The rabbit is saying ‘I don’t haveany weapons (I am practically defenceless) so I must defeat him with a powerful stare’.Study Source B.Source B explains one of the weaknesses of the League of Nations in 1920.Do you agree that the lack of an armed force was the main weakness of the League of Nations when it was set up in 1920?Explain your answer by referring to the purpose of the source, as well as using its content and your knowledge. (6 marks)
88Paper 1: Topic 3Paper 1: Hitler’s Foreign Policy and the Origins of the Second World WarKey Question: How did Hitler challenge and exploit the Treaty of Versailles 1933-March 1938?Hitler’s aims in foreign policyThe return of the Saar, 1935The beginning of rearmament in Germany; withdrawal from the Disarmament Conference 1933; non-aggression pact with Poland 1934; reintroduction of conscription from 1935; Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935The remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936Anschluss with Austria 1938Key Question: Why did Chamberlain's policy of appeasement fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939?Reasons for and against appeasementThe Sudeten Crisis and Munich Agreement, 1938The collapse of Czechoslovakia, March 1939The role of the USSR : the Nazi-Soviet PactPoland and the outbreak of warResponsibility for the outbreak of war
89Hitler’s aims in foreign policy The return of the Saar, 1935 How did Hitler challenge and exploit the Treaty of Versailles 1933-March 1938?Hitler’s aims in foreign policyThe return of the Saar, 1935The beginning of rearmament in Germany; withdrawal from the Disarmament Conference 1933; non-aggression pact with Poland 1934; reintroduction of conscription from 1935; Anglo-German Naval Agreement 1935The remilitarization of the Rhineland 1936Anschluss with Austria 1938
90Timeline 1933 Germany leaves the League of Nations Jan 1934 Hitler signs 10yr non-aggression pact with PolandJuly 1934Mussolini prevents Anschluss with AustriaJan 1935Saar returned to GermanyApril 1935Stresa Front formedJune 1935Anglo-German Naval AgreementOctober 1935Mussolini invades AbyssiniaMarch 1936Rhineland remilitarisedOctober 1936Rome-Berlin AxisSpanish Civil WarMay 1937Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister – APPEASEMENTMarch 1938Anschluss with AustriaSeptember 1938Munich ConferenceMarch 1939Collapse of CzechoslovakiaAugust 1939Nazi-Soviet PactSeptember 1939Attack on Poland and the outbreak of WWII
91Timeline1933Jan 1934Hitler signs 10yr non-aggression pact with PolandJuly 1934Mussolini prevents Anschluss with AustriaSaar returned to GermanyApril 1935June 1935Anglo-German Naval AgreementOctober 1935Mussolini invades AbyssiniaRhineland remilitarisedOctober 1936Rome-Berlin AxisSpanish Civil WarMay 1937Chamberlain becomes Prime Minister – APPEASEMENTMarch 1938Munich ConferenceCollapse of CzechoslovakiaAugust 1939September 1939Attack on Poland and the outbreak of WWII
921919, Treaty of Versailles = Germany “stabbed in the back”
93Hitler’s AimsThis is what he SAID he wanted, now let’s see what he actually did.
94Unite all German speaking people in one single country. Hitler’s AimsUnite all German speaking people in one single country.Put right all the harm the Treaty Of Versailles has done to Germany and make Germany great again.Get lebensraum [living space] for all the Germany people. We need colonies and land to house our huge population.This is what he SAID he wanted, now let’s see what he actually did.
95Hitler’s Aims“It was necessary for us [the Nazi Party] to dig ourselves into the minds of the people as the enemies of the peace treaties so that the people give us their confidence.” MEIN KAMPF, 1923This is what he SAID he wanted, now let’s see what he actually did.What does this source mean?Which parts of the treaty would he want to reverse to gain support?
96How did Hitler plan to achieve these aims? Take back land lostBring the 7million German speakers in Austria and 4 million in Czechoslovakia and Poland in to his empireBuild up the armed forces to make Germany great againExpand in the east and destroy Communism
99German Foreign Policy 1933-35 1932 – Disarmament ConferenceFrance= never disarm1933 – Hitler withdrew from Conference1935 –Gr introduced conscription1935 – Br, Fr & It = Stresa Front against GermanyTofV= unfairFR = not act aloneGermany and Poland signed a 10yr non-aggression pactHitler promised not to take Polish corridorPleased BritainGerman Foreign Policy1935 – Britain pleased with HitlerGermany navy limited to 35% of British navyBritain agreed to German rearmamentBr acted without Fr or It1938 = 800,000 men; 47 u-boats; 2,000 aircraft1934 – Austrian Nazi Party encouraged to rebelAustrian Chancellor Dollfuss killedMussolini moved army to Austria to prevent Hitler from achieving AnschlussHitler not strong enough so backed down
104Rhineland, March 1936 Describe 7th March 1936 Germany in to the RhinelandBroke the TofV and Locarno PactLeague condemned the actionExplainGerman troops told to retreat if confrontedBr & Fr more concerned with Mussolini and AbyssiniaFr = not prepared to act without BrBr = Hitler not doing anything wrong – “marching on to his own backyard”No one wanted warBr = TofV unfairAssessHitler = reversed TofV = confidenceHitler = more popular in GermanyRome-Berlin Axis (fascists working together)Failure of the LofN to keep peace
105ANSCHLUSS = UNION WITH AUSTRIA Unite all German speakersRumours of Nazi plot to overthrow Austrian GovSchuschnigg = appeal to Hitler for helpSeyss-Inquart = Min of Interior = in charge of the policeRiots by Austrian Nazis = not stopped by policeSchuschnigg = PLEBISCITE to decide whether to join with GermanyHitler = troops to border, called for Schuschnigg to resignBr&Fr did nothingSeyss-Inquart = ChancellorGermans invited to restore order
106Austrian Plebiscite, April 1938 80,000 opponents arrested and put in concentration campsApril = plebiscite99.75% - YES vote for NAZIS
107RESULTS LofN = not consulted Br = TofV too harsh Br = feared communism moreAustria = resources for Hitler to useTofV = reversalHitler = more confidentGermany = land on 3 sides of the SudetenlandAustrians welcomed Germany
108Why did Chamberlain's policy of appeasement fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939? FOR APPEASEMENTAGAINST APPEASEMENT
109Why did Chamberlain's policy of appeasement fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939? FOR APPEASEMENTAGAINST APPEASEMENTAvoid a war at all costsHitler could not be trusted – broken promises since 1933DepressionBritain looked weak and encouraged HitlerLeague of Nations had failedBetrayed countries protected by the TofVCommunism feared more than fascismHitler increased strength and power
111Why did Hitler want the Sudetenland? Unite all German speaking people = 3million in the SudetenlandCzech government accused of treating German speakers unfairlyHenlein = Czech Nazi campaigned for independence from Czech
112Munich Agreement Met at Bertesgaden, near Munich Czechs&France agree Hitler demands the SudetenlandAreas with 50%+ Germans to GermanyCzechs&France agreeMeeting at GodesbergHitler makes new demands - land to Poland and HungaryBritain rejects demands – war preparations beginMunich = Gr, Br, Fr, ItSudetenland to Hitler
113Importance of the Munich Agreement Hitler = Sudetenland without fightingCzechoslovakia betrayedPeace preservedCzechoslovakia = vulnerable to invasionGermany = more resourcesBritain speeded up rearmamentUSSR felt left out and betrayed
114Czechoslovakia Munich Agreement = break up of Czechoslovakia October&November 1938 = Poland&Hungary gained land from CzechoslovakiaMarch 1939 = Slovaks press for independence too!Hitler marches in to Czechoslovakia to restore orderBr&Fr protested but did not directly oppose!
115ResultRankEnd of appeasementHitler could not be trustedMemel (Lithuania) back to GermanyBr&Fr signed an agreement to protect PolandBritain guaranteed the independence of Romania and GreeceHitler withdrew from the 10yr non-aggression pact with Poland and the Anglo-German Naval Agreement
121Stalin prepare USSR for future attack Nazi Soviet PactAugust, 1939When?Why?Stalin prepare USSR for future attackStalin unhappy with Br&Fr leaving him out of MunichStalin= Br and Fr using Germany against USSRHitler avoided a war on 2 frontsBr&Fr lost a possible allyNot to fight against each other in the event of warSecret agreement to divide PolandWhat?Ribbentrop = Germany & Molotov= RussiaWho?
122Invasion of Poland April 1939 = Hitler demands Danzig Believed Br and Fr wouldn’t go to war over Danzig3rd September 1939 = Br declared war on Germany1st September 1939
123Put the following events in chronological order Recap…Put the following events in chronological order
124Munich AgreementAnglo-German Naval AgreementThe retaking of the SaarCzechoslovakiaInvasion of PolandNazi-Soviet PactRearmamentAnschluss (2nd attempt)Rhineland
126Responsible for war…? SCORE EVENT Rearmament Anglo-German Naval AgreementThe retaking of the SaarRhinelandAnschluss (2nd attempt)Munich AgreementCzechoslovakiaNazi-Soviet PactInvasion of Poland
127International History, 1900-49 Test yourselfWhich British Prime Minister is most closely associated with appeasement?Name three countries that were appeased by Britain in the 1930s.In which year did Japan invade Manchuria?How large an army was Germany restricted to by the Treaty of Versailles?Which African state was invaded by Italy in 1935?Why did Britain try to turn a blind-eye to Mussolini's aggressive foreign policy in 1935?In which war did both Germany and Italy support the fascist dictator General Franco?Which clause of the Treaty of Versailles was broken by Germany in 1936?Which country became part of Germany after the Anschluss of 1938?What was the name of the largely German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia?Who was the leader of the Sudeten Germans?Essentially what was agreed to at the Munich Conference of 1938?Which Polish port was claimed by Germany in 1939?Which agreement between Germany and Russia prevented Russia from declaring war on Germany in 1939?What is the German word for the eastward expansion of Germany's frontiers in the 1930s and 40s which aimed to provide new lands for the German people?Why was Britain reluctant to formalise a defensive alliance with Russia in the 1930s?
128Know what each question is about 4 marks 6 marks 10 marks
1304 mark questions Based on simple knowledge Need to be more than just bullet pointsYou need to describe (use knowledge to show) what is happeningE.g.Think about what the league tried to doExplain what they did
131So…Firstly the League of Nations tried to solve the Abyssinian crisis by...This was where...This would help solve the crisis because...Secondly the League tried to solve the Abyssinian crisis by...PL2-2EvExL2-3PEvExL3-4
1326 mark questionsYou Must use the sourceYou must use your knowledge
133So… Firstly I agree with the content of the source as it shows ... This tells me that...(In addition this source was made by...which...)HOWEVER, I also disagree with the source from my own knowledge...I know that the League was also weak because...In conclusion…Make a link, bring something new- develop your conclusionL2-2PEvExL3-4/5PEvExL4- 2 sidesL4-6
13410 mark questions Dead easy to get good marks! Mini essay question It tells you what to talk aboutPEE to be usedArgue one sideThen the otherGood conclusion to get top marks
135Use this grid to help you!!! On the one handOn the other handDescribeExplainAssess
136Use this grid to help you!!! On the one handOn the other handDescribeLand that Germany lostDanzigSaarColoniesReparations enormous6.6 billionExplainWhy Germany hated this12.5% of pop10% of landIndustrial areasPridestrengthEconomic collapse- WWIWar guilt unfairNot agreed until 1921Punishing the wrong governmentAssess (Conclusion)Impact on the economyHarder to recoverCan’t make reparations payments led to 1923 Ruhr and hyper inflationHumiliation- troops in RuhrHow do they link? Which is most important?
137Use this grid to help you!!! On the one handOn the other handDescribeLand that Germany lostDanzigSaarColoniesReparations enormous6.6 billionExplainWhy Germany hated this12.5% of pop10% of landIndustrial areasPridestrengthEconomic collapse- WWIWar guilt unfairNot agreed until 1921Punishing the wrong governmentAssess (Conclusion)Impact on the economyHarder to recoverCan’t make reparations payments led to 1923 Ruhr and hyper inflationHumiliation- troops in RuhrHow do they link? Which is most important?L1-1L2-3/5L3-6/8L4-9/10
138Examination QuestionWhich was the more important as a reason for the failure of the League of NationsThe Manchurian Crisis,The Abyssinian Crisis, ?
139Answering the question Introduction:Which crisis do you think was the more serious?Main Body:Describe the two crises briefly (remember beginning, middle and the end)Explain why you believe one was more important.Conclusion:The ________________was more important because it led to……