Presentation on theme: "L EARNING O BJECTIVE : T O UNDERSTAND THE KEY FEATURES OF THE T RUMAN DOCTRINE AND THE M ARSHALL PLAN L EARNING O UTCOME : T O BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE."— Presentation transcript:
L EARNING O BJECTIVE : T O UNDERSTAND THE KEY FEATURES OF THE T RUMAN DOCTRINE AND THE M ARSHALL PLAN L EARNING O UTCOME : T O BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF THE T RUMAN DOCTRINE AND M ARSHALL PLAN
Draw an image in the back of your book to summarise American, British and Western feeling towards Stalin’s ‘salami tactics’ in Eastern Europe. What are their feelings? What are their fears and reactions to the spread of Communism in Eastern Europe?
“America will have to take responsibility for world collaboration or we shall have to bear the responsibility for another world war.”
Stalin took over Eastern Europe setting up Communist governments. The west had agreed that the area should be friendly to the USSR, but Stalin’s actions were seen to have gone too far. Stalin claimed he was only making himself secure- to the Americans it looked suspiciously like he was trying to spread Communism.
To the USA, it looked like Greece and Czechoslovakia were next on Stalin’s list of conquest. But, they questioned, who knows where he would stop then? Events in Greece would be very important!
Greece had been occupied by Germany during WW2, when they were defeated Greece was torn between the monarchists and the Communists. They were supported by the USSR. Britain (in 1945) sent troops to defend Greece against the Communists, but in 1947, they announced they could not afford to keep fighting, they would withdraw their troops. Truman stepped in. the Americans would pay to keep the British troops there to prevent a Communist take over! It triggered a new American policy.
‘I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures… the free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining those freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world.’ What do you think Truman is saying? What is the Truman doctrine? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUd2 W6aMng4
The USA would give money, equipment and advice to any country, who America thought, were under threat from a communist take- over. Truman knew he could do nothing about Eastern Europe. His aim was to stop Communism from spreading any further. They called this containment.
Truman Doctrine= stop Communism from spreading further Marshall Plan= Give money to persuade people to be Capitalist (putting Truman doctrine into practise) http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=Xyoviiavusk No more Communism
Truman recognised that when people faced poverty and hardship, they were more likely to be susceptible to Communism General George Marshall assessed Europe and concluded that Europe was in a dire state, with ruined economies on the verge of collapse, a breeding ground for Communism. They owed 11.5 billion to the USA, faced food and fuel shortages, rations. Churchill called it a ‘rubble heap and breading ground for hate.’
America would give 17 billion to the European countries to help them recover- this was Marshall Aid/Plan Marshall said ‘our policy is directed against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos.’
How would Stalin feel about Marshall Aid and the Truman Doctrine?
At first the US government were reluctant about giving so much money, but they quickly changed their mind. Czechoslovakia- ruled by a coalition which included Communists, had started to try and become more independent of the USSR In March 1948, the Communists came down hard on the Czechs and any Anti-Soviet leaders were killed. It seemed worse when a pro American, Jan Masaryk was found dead below his open window!
Stalin treated Marshall Aid with suspicion He refused to have anything to do with it He forbid any of the Eastern European states to have any of the aid He thought it was anti-Communist and would weaken his control over Eastern Europe. He saw it as America trying to spread Capitalism and their influence by making everyone dependent on their money. Instead he set up his own form of aid COMECON and developed COMINFORM to regulate the Communist states
Design a poster advertising the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan to the countries of Europe. What are the benefits? Why is this such a good thing? What are the benefits to the USA?
http://www.schoolhistory.co.uk/lessons/coldwar/col dwar_truman.html Print out the diagram and make sure that it is stuck into your exercise book by next lesson. You must learn all the key facts for a test!!! FIND out about COMECON and COMINFORM COMPLETE POSTER