Presentation on theme: "Asian Immigration to America"— Presentation transcript:
1Asian Immigration to America Aidan Kaplan, Tariq Almani, Destaing Ogu, Claire Greensmith
2Asian Immigrants in the U.S. - From Asia and the western Pacific area- Philippines, China, Japan, India, Vietnam- Different nationalities, languages, religions, socioeconomic levels
3Asian Immigrants in the U.S. - Less segregated than African Americans and Hispanics- Discrimination still present
4Filipinos: First Wave-There have been four waves of Filipino immigration to the United States.-The first wave began around 1763 and ended in 1898.-At this time, the Philippines were a part of New Spain.-“Manilamen” working on Spanish galleons migrated via the ships.-Many ended up in Louisiana, where they pioneered methods of drying shrimp.
5Filipinos: Second Wave -The second wave was from-1898: Spanish-American war begins.-Philippines declare independencefrom Spain on June 12, 1898.-Spain loses the war, cedes thePhilippines for $20 million. Filipinosbecome U.S. nationals.- The U.S. refuses to acknowledgePhilippine sovereignty, leading to thePhilippine-American war ( ).
6Filipinos: Second Wave (cont.) -The United States win the war, launch “Pensionado” program in 1903.-Most students earn degrees in government and administration, returning to the Philippines with U.S. skills/culture.
7Filipinos: Second Wave (cont.) -Most Filipino immigrants at this time were unskilled laborers.-Hawaii and California: destinations for the overwhelming majority.-H.S.P.A. recruits from Philippine cities.-Filipinos eventually become largest ethnic group in the plantations.
8Filipinos: Transitional Period -From 1935 to 1946, Filipinos faced a period of transition.-1934: Tydings-McDuffie Act-1935: Filipino Repatriation Act
9Filipinos: Third Wave -Third wave was from 1945-1965. -After WW2, citizenship is granted to Filipino veterans and their dependents.-Philippine independence reached onJuly 4th, 1946.-Filipinos were now aliens, and their quota was reduced to 100 immigrants per year.-Filipinos in the Navy could still attain citizenship through years of service.
10Filipinos: Fourth Wave -The fourth wave began in 1965 and continues today.-The Immigration and Nationality Act of reformed the “intolerable” status quo.-Filipinos who came after the law was passed were part of a new wave.-“Relative selective” and “occupational” migration.-1970: 343,000-1990: 1.4 million
11Filipinos: Political Community -Despite their history in the United States, Filipinos do not have much political visibility. -Only two members ofCongress are of Filipinodescent; neither areSenators.-Less than one percentof Filipino nonprofits areadvocacy groups.
13First wave of immigration: Mid-19th Century Chinese ImmigrationFirst wave of immigration: Mid-19th CenturyChinese men immigrated for labor in western U.S.
14Chinese Immigration First Chinese immigrants were labor workers: Transcontinental RailroadGold RushAgricultureMilitaryFisheries
15Where did they go? Immigrated primarily to the West Coast: California San FranciscoOregonThe vast majority of the Chinese people worked in factories of production such as cigars, clothing etc.
16California Gold Rush Began January 24, 1848: James W. Marshall discovered a gold nugget in the American River while constructing a sawmill for John Sutter, a Sacramento agriculturalist.There were 25,000 Chinese working in California, most of them were miners.Chinese clustered themselves around the San Francisco region which soon became to be Chinatown.However, as time passed more conflicts occurred between the Americans and the ChineseThe Naturalization Act in 1870 then came into action restricting emigration of the Chinese and prohibited them from being naturalized.
17Chinese jobs in USA # Occupation Population % 1. Miners 17 069 36.9 2. Laborers (not specified)9 43620.43.Domestic servants5 42011.74.Launderers3 6537.95.Agricultural laborers1 7663.8
18More Immigration 2nd wave of immigration: (1949-1980’s) The Magnuson Act, also known as the Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of 1943.Allowed Chinese immigration for the first time since the Exclusion Chinese Act of 1882Permitted Chinese nationals already residing in the country to become naturalized citizens
19More Immigration 3rd Wave: (1980’s to Present) Most immigrants coming from China were undocumented aliens seeking low-status manual jobs.Sought jobs in heavily urbanized cities such as New York, San Francisco, etc.
21JAPANImmigration Act of 1965: Signed into law by Pres. Lyndon Johnson, it allowed more immigrants from third world countries to enter the U.S.The new immigrants were not admitted based on the countries of origins but rather based on their skills and professions.Allowed more Japaneseimmigration into the U.S.
22Japanese Immigration Hawaiian Sugar Industry: (1880s) Created a labor gap that saw many Japanese immigration into that region.
23Japanese ImmigrationJapanese immigrants first came into the Pacific Northwest in the 1880’s.Railroads recruited first generation Japanese immigrants living in Hawaii.They helped construct the Oregon Shortline and other railroads in the Columbia River basin.
24Japanese communitiesAfter generations of mostly manual labor they began establishing communitiesBy 1910, the Valley’s Japanese population had grown to 468This is picture was taken in 1914 in Emmett, Idaho of a family owned business by Max and Itano Hosado
25Japanese Immigrants after WWI Resentment for Japanese people in America:The National Origins Act practically excluding further Japanese immigration.Japanese business were forced to closedSecond and third generation Japanese Americans were the majority of those who suffered
26Japanese Immigrants after WWII Following the onset of WWII and the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese immigrants and third generation Japanese Americans were targeted.Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the removal of 120,000 Japanese Americans from their homes in the west coast into inland concentration camps(Executive order 9066)
27Japanese American revival Japanese Americans worked hard to erase the resentments from public eye and also to remove state discriminatory legislations that were rampant at the timeMost Japanese Americans felt the need to prove their “Americanness” so they joined the military and fought for the Allies
28Japanese Americans and Jobs Many children of the post 1965 Japanese immigrants have achieved remarkable educational and professional successes.As a result it has transformed the demographic, cultural, and economic characteristics of many urban areas like New york, Los Angeles, San Jose, etc.This has led to occasional tensions where older residents turn to accuse Asians of “taking-over”So attempts of attaining political power with the level of demographic emergence and economic success has been rather a slow process
29Asian Indian Immigration Immigration Reform Act of 1965Amended quota and skill preferencesNaturalization rightsFairly recent phenomenonHighly-educated, skilled professionals from urban middle classMotivated by professional, educational, financial and social opportunities.
30Asian Indian Immigration Immigrated to:New YorkCaliforniaNew JerseyIllinoisOccupation:Technology information industryEducation“Indians have the highest share of college-educated and the highest median household income ($88,000) among the largest Asian-American groups.” -- USA Today, 2012
31Vietnamese Immigration • Mass immigration following the end of the Vietnam War (1975)• Different ethnic groups seeking refuge–Vietnamese–Cambodians–Laotians–Lao Hmong
33Vietnamese Immigration Legislation:Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act (1975)After fall of SaigonIndochinese Refugee Assistance ProgramRefugee Act of 1980Raised immigrant limitationImmediate family members immigrate
34Vietnamese Immigration First Wave (1975):Highly-skilled, EducatedSecond Wave (1978- mid- 1980s)Lower socioeconomic status
37Vietnamese Immigration Poor urban neighborhoodsStrong ethnic communitiesSome resentment of immigrantsVietnam War not popularAmerican sympathy for refugeesVOLAGsVoluntary Agencies aiming to assist and sponsor refugees coming to the United States
38Vietnamese Populations in America “Throughout much of the 1970s, much of the 1980s, and into the early 1990s, almost 75% of newly-arriving immigrants settled in just 6 states...about one-third settled in California alone.” - Urban InstituteCaliforniaTexasEast CoastNorthern U.S.
40Vietnamese Immigrants: Occupations Rudimentary education and skills meant niche jobsSmall businessesRestaurantsNail SalonsCommercial Fishing and Shrimping
41Vietnamese Political Activity in America Strongly opposed to Communism and sympathetic to Human RightsMembership greater with Republican Party“[The Vietnamese Americans] vote with gusto, are increasingly running for office and, in a county with a reputation for political conservatism, have been faithfully Republican.” - Los Angeles Times, 2008Strong Ethnic TiesCommunity Centers
42Asian Immigrants in America Today Ethnically diverse“Asian Americans say the U.S. is preferable to their country of origin in such realms as providing economic opportunity, political and religious freedoms, and good conditions for raising children.” -- Pew Research, Social & Demographic Trends (April, 2013)
43Asian Americans + Politics More likely to support and activist gvmt. and less likely to identify as RepublicansPrefer big government that provides more services.“Asian Americans are now the most urbanized U.S. population with about 95 percent living in urban rather than rural residences.” -- Population Reference Bureau, 2004
45Discussion QuestionsIn what ways do Asian immigrants differ from other ethnic groups immigrating to America?How do you think that Asian immigrants’ motivations for coming to America have changed?Asians recently passed Hispanics as the largest group of new immigrants to the United States. Does this surprise you? Why or why not?