Presentation on theme: "Asian Immigration to America Aidan Kaplan, Tariq Almani, Destaing Ogu, Claire Greensmith."— Presentation transcript:
Asian Immigration to America Aidan Kaplan, Tariq Almani, Destaing Ogu, Claire Greensmith
Asian Immigrants in the U.S. - From Asia and the western Pacific area - Philippines, China, Japan, India, Vietnam - Different nationalities, languages, religions, socioeconomic levels
Asian Immigrants in the U.S. - Less segregated than African Americans and Hispanics - Discrimination still present
Filipinos: First Wave -There have been four waves of Filipino immigration to the United States. -The first wave began around 1763 and ended in At this time, the Philippines were a part of New Spain. -“Manilamen” working on Spanish galleons migrated via the ships. -Many ended up in Louisiana, where they pioneered methods of drying shrimp.
Filipinos: Second Wave - The second wave was from : Spanish-American war begins. -Philippines declare independence from Spain on June 12, Spain loses the war, cedes the Philippines for $20 million. Filipinos become U.S. nationals. - The U.S. refuses to acknowledge Philippine sovereignty, leading to the Philippine-American war ( ).
Filipinos: Second Wave (cont.) -The United States win the war, launch “Pensionado” program in Most students earn degrees in government and administration, returning to the Philippines with U.S. skills/culture.
Filipinos: Second Wave (cont.) -Most Filipino immigrants at this time were unskilled laborers. -Hawaii and California: destinations for the overwhelming majority. -H.S.P.A. recruits from Philippine cities. -Filipinos eventually become largest ethnic group in the plantations.
Filipinos: Transitional Period -From 1935 to 1946, Filipinos faced a period of transition : Tydings-McDuffie Act -1935: Filipino Repatriation Act
Filipinos: Third Wave -Third wave was from After WW2, citizenship is granted to Filipino veterans and their dependents. -Philippine independence reached on July 4th, Filipinos were now aliens, and their quota was reduced to 100 immigrants per year. -Filipinos in the Navy could still attain citizenship through years of service.
Filipinos: Fourth Wave -The fourth wave began in 1965 and continues today. -The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 reformed the “intolerable” status quo. -Filipinos who came after the law was passed were part of a new wave. -“Relative selective” and “occupational” migration : 343, : 1.4 million
Filipinos: Political Community -Despite their history in the United States, Filipinos do not have much political visibility. -Only two members of Congress are of Filipino descent; neither are Senators. -Less than one percent of Filipino nonprofits are advocacy groups.
●First wave of immigration: Mid-19th Century ○ Chinese men immigrated for labor in western U.S.
Chinese Immigration ●First Chinese immigrants were labor workers: ○ Transcontinental Railroad ○ Gold Rush ○ Agriculture ○ Military ○ Fisheries
Where did they go? ●Immigrated primarily to the West Coast: ○ California ■ San Francisco ○ Oregon ●The vast majority of the Chinese people worked in factories of production such as cigars, clothing etc.
California Gold Rush ●Began January 24, 1848: ○ James W. Marshall discovered a gold nugget in the American River while constructing a sawmill for John Sutter, a Sacramento agriculturalist. ●There were 25,000 Chinese working in California, most of them were miners. ●Chinese clustered themselves around the San Francisco region which soon became to be Chinatown. ●However, as time passed more conflicts occurred between the Americans and the Chinese ● The Naturalization Act in 1870 then came into action restricting emigration of the Chinese and prohibited them from being naturalized.
Chinese jobs in USA #OccupationPopulation % 1. Miners Laborers (not specified) Domestic servants Launderers Agricultural laborers
More Immigration ●2nd wave of immigration: ( ’s) ●The Magnuson Act, also known as the Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act of Magnuson Act ○ Allowed Chinese immigration for the first time since the Exclusion Chinese Act of 1882 ○ Permitted Chinese nationals already residing in the country to become naturalized citizens
More Immigration ●3rd Wave: (1980’s to Present) ●Most immigrants coming from China were undocumented aliens seeking low-status manual jobs. ●Sought jobs in heavily urbanized cities such as New York, San Francisco, etc.
Chinese Population in America Today
JAPAN Immigration Act of 1965: Signed into law by Pres. Lyndon Johnson, it allowed more immigrants from third world countries to enter the U.S. ●The new immigrants were not admitted based on the countries of origins but rather based on their skills and professions. ●Allowed more Japanese immigration into the U.S.
Japanese Immigration ●Hawaiian Sugar Industry: (1880s) ○ Created a labor gap that saw many Japanese immigration into that region.
Japanese Immigration ●Japanese immigrants first came into the Pacific Northwest in the 1880’s. ●Railroads recruited first generation Japanese immigrants living in Hawaii. ●They helped construct the Oregon Shortline and other railroads in the Columbia River basin.
Japanese communities ●After generations of mostly manual labor they began establishing communities ●By 1910, the Valley’s Japanese population had grown to 468 ●This is picture was taken in 1914 in Emmett, Idaho of a family owned business by Max and Itano Hosado
Japanese Immigrants after WWI ● Resentment for Japanese people in America: ○ The National Origins Act practically excluding further Japanese immigration. ○ Japanese business were forced to closed ○ Second and third generation Japanese Americans were the majority of those who suffered
Japanese Immigrants after WWII ●Following the onset of WWII and the attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese immigrants and third generation Japanese Americans were targeted. ●Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the removal of 120,000 Japanese Americans from their homes in the west coast into inland concentration camps (Executive order 9066)
Japanese American revival ●Japanese Americans worked hard to erase the resentments from public eye and also to remove state discriminatory legislations that were rampant at the time ●Most Japanese Americans felt the need to prove their “Americanness” so they joined the military and fought for the Allies
Japanese Americans and Jobs ●Many children of the post 1965 Japanese immigrants have achieved remarkable educational and professional successes. ●As a result it has transformed the demographic, cultural, and economic characteristics of many urban areas like New york, Los Angeles, San Jose, etc. ●This has led to occasional tensions where older residents turn to accuse Asians of “taking-over”
Asian Indian Immigration ➔ Immigration Reform Act of 1965 ◆ Amended quota and skill preferences ◆ Naturalization rights ➔ Fairly recent phenomenon ➔ Highly-educated, skilled professionals from urban middle class ➔ Motivated by professional, educational, financial and social opportunities.
Asian Indian Immigration ➔ Immigrated to: ◆ New York ◆ California ◆ New Jersey ◆ Illinois ➔ Occupation: ◆ Technology information industry ➔ Education ◆ “Indians have the highest share of college-educated and the highest median household income ($88,000) among the largest Asian-American groups.” -- USA Today, 2012
Vietnamese Immigration Mass immigration following the end of the Vietnam War (1975) Different ethnic groups seeking refuge –Vietnamese –Cambodians –Laotians –Lao Hmong
Vietnamese Immigration Legislation: 1. Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act (1975) a. After fall of Saigon b. Indochinese Refugee Assistance Program 2.Refugee Act of 1980 a. Raised immigrant limitation b. Immediate family members immigrate
Vietnamese Immigration ➔ First Wave (1975): ◆ Highly-skilled, Educated ➔ Second Wave (1978- mid- 1980s) ◆ Lower socioeconomic status
Vietnamese Immigration ●Poor urban neighborhoods ○ Strong ethnic communities ●Some resentment of immigrants ○ Vietnam War not popular ●American sympathy for refugees ○ VOLAGs ■ Voluntary Agencies aiming to assist and sponsor refugees coming to the United States
Vietnamese Populations in America “Throughout much of the 1970s, much of the 1980s, and into the early 1990s, almost 75% of newly-arriving immigrants settled in just 6 states...about one-third settled in California alone.” - Urban Institute ➔ California ➔ Texas ➔ East Coast ➔ Northern U.S.
Vietnamese Immigrants: Occupations ●Rudimentary education and skills meant niche jobs ○ Small businesses ○ Restaurants ○ Nail Salons ○ Commercial Fishing and Shrimping
Vietnamese Political Activity in America ➔ Strongly opposed to Communism and sympathetic to Human Rights ➔ Membership greater with Republican Party ◆ “[The Vietnamese Americans] vote with gusto, are increasingly running for office and, in a county with a reputation for political conservatism, have been faithfully Republican.” - Los Angeles Times, 2008 ➔ Strong Ethnic Ties ◆ Community Centers
Asian Immigrants in America Today ●Ethnically diverse ●“Asian Americans say the U.S. is preferable to their country of origin in such realms as providing economic opportunity, political and religious freedoms, and good conditions for raising children.” -- Pew Research, Social & Demographic Trends (April, 2013)Pew Research
Asian Americans + Politics ●More likely to support and activist gvmt. and less likely to identify as RepublicansRepublicans ●Prefer big government that provides more services. ●“Asian Americans are now the most urbanized U.S. population with about 95 percent living in urban rather than rural residences.” -- Population Reference Bureau, 2004
Discussion Questions 1.In what ways do Asian immigrants differ from other ethnic groups immigrating to America? 2.How do you think that Asian immigrants’ motivations for coming to America have changed? 3.Asians recently passed Hispanics as the largest group of new immigrants to the United States. Does this surprise you? Why or why not?