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AMERICAN HISTORY. EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I  Economic problems, social change, and the threat of communism helped produce a RED SCARE—a fear of aliens.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICAN HISTORY. EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I  Economic problems, social change, and the threat of communism helped produce a RED SCARE—a fear of aliens."— Presentation transcript:


2 EUROPE AFTER WORLD WAR I  Economic problems, social change, and the threat of communism helped produce a RED SCARE—a fear of aliens and radicals  European economy was in ruins  PROBLEMS WITH PEACE  Treaty of Versailles brought the war to an end  Many European nations dissatisfied with result

3  France had hoped the treaty would severely weaken Germany  Italy had hope to gain territory because they were on the winning side but they were ignored  GERMAN OUTRAGE  German people & military were humiliated

4  Germany had to give up large industrial areas  Germany had to pay large war reparations  Early 1920s—severe inflation occurred (hyperinflation) (chart p. 739)  Communists and Socialists tried to take control of Germany 1918-1919 but failed  Germany established a democratic government  Weimar (VY-mahr) Republic

5  Not a very strong government  Opposition from political far left— Communists—and the far right, which was antidemocratic  German military was reduced in size and power

6 TOTALITARIAN LEADERS ARISE  New leaders began to emerge in Europe  They reflected to people’s bitterness and anger  They promised a return to greatness  Their vision was so appealing that people were willing to give up basic freedoms in return for hope of future glory

7  MUSSOLINI AND THE BIRTH OF FASCISM  Benito Mussolini (Italy)--socialist  Unlike most socialists, he supported Italy’s entry into WWI  By wars end, he had move to the far right of Italian politics and strongly opposed socialism and communism  Founded a new Italian political party—the National Fascist Party

8  FASCIST—comes from a latin word for “a bundle of rods tied together”  Ancient Romans used this bundle as a symbol of their state  Romans thought a single rod could be broken but a bundle of rods was very strong  Mussolini thought that FASCISM was a system of government that stressed the glory of the state

9  Slogan—”Everything in the State, nothing outside the state”  Rights and concerns of individuals were of little importance  Mussolini used a dynamic speaking ability to win a seat in Parliament  1922—He became leader of the government  Mussolini established a DICTATORSHIP— government by a leader or group that holds unchallenged power

10  He did not allow other political parties and he crushed opponents  His government controlled newspapers, schools, and businesses  All power flowed through Mussolini  He was referred to as “IL DUCE”—the leader  TOTALITARIAN REGIME—Mussolini controlled everyday life in Italy

11  HITLER’S RISE TO POWER  Born in Austria  Rejected by the Austrian military because they thought he was to weak to carry a weapon  He volunteered with the German army in WWI and built a solid record as a soldier  He joined a small political party known as the National Socialists, or Nazis

12  It was during this period that Hitler found his talent for public speaking  1923—organized an effort to seize power in Germany by force  Hitler arrested and sentenced to 5 years in prison—he served 9 months  In prison he produced a book entitled MEIN KAMPF (My Struggle)  Hitler stressed nationalism and devotion to state

13  In Mein Kampf Hitler expressed a belief in the racial superiority of Germanic peoples that he called Aryans  He blamed Jews for many of Germany’s problems  He said Jews threatened the purity of the Aryan race  After prison Hitler wanted to gain power through peaceful means

14  1933—Nazi Party was the most powerful in Germany  Hitler became Germany’s chancellor  Now he pushed to become a totalitarian dictator  Using political skill and violence he eliminated opponents  Hitler began a secret build-up of the military

15  OTHER REGIMES  Civil war erupted in Spain in 1930s  This brought Fascist general Fransisco Franco to power  In the Soviet Union communism was already established when Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s  Stalin violently crushed opponents  Towns and cities were renamed after him and portraits were displayed everywhere

16  In Japan military leaders used violence to gain control of the government  They were inspired by nationalistic dreams of greatness that would lead to war

17 TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENTS AND MILITARY FORCE  A common feature of the leaders of this time was their willingness to use violence to gain power  JAPAN AND MANCHURIA  A major problem in Japan was lack of space  Japan was led by a civilian government but people were unhappy

18  1931—Some Japanese generals invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria without government approval  The government ordered the military to stop but the order was ignored  The League of Nations strongly criticized Japan so Japan simply withdrew from the League

19  ITALY INVADES ETHIOPIA  The weakness of the League of Nations was evident when Italy invaded Ethiopia  Ethiopia was unable to resist  Leader Haile Selassie asked the League for help  The League failed or refused to act  American leaders spoke out against Italy  President Franklin Roosevelt was unwilling to take any other formal action

20  THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR  1930s—political turmoil in Spain  Left (Communists) vs. Right (Fascists & Nationalists)  1936—conflict led to civil war  War attracted involvement from other countries in Europe and North America  Italy and Germany sent forces on the side of the Nationalists  Soviet Union and United States helped the other side (aka The Republicans)

21  The fighting was brutal  Hundreds of thousands of people died  This included several hundred American volunteers  1939—Franco’s Nationalists defeated the Republicans  Spain was now under control of a fascist dictator

22 HITLER TAKES ACTION  Hitler openly stated his plan to re-arm Germany in violation of the Treaty of Versailles  Hitler managed to convince Great Britain and France to tolerate his actions  1935—Britain allowed Germany to rebuild their navy & submarines  Hitler claimed the military was needed to resist communism

23  MILITARIZING THE RHINELAND  Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was required to keep its troops out of the area in the Rhine River valley along the French border  1936—Germany violated the treaty by sending in troops  Hitler claimed a recent military agreement between France and the Soviet Union threatened Germany

24  France was alarmed about the German troops  Britain had no interest in going to war over German troops  Hitler grew bolder  THE ANSCHLUSS  1938—Hitler took action to gain control of Austria  He dreamed of uniting all ethnic Germans including Austrians

25  1938—Hitler tried to force the Austrian government to agree to ANSCHLUSS—union with Germany  Austria refused  Hitler sent troops into the country  THE SUDENTENLAND  Hitler was confident no one would stop him

26  His next move was to control of a German- speaking section of Czechoslovakia called the Sudentenland  He urged Germans to protest Czech rule  Then he threatened a military attack  British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Premier Edouard Daladier met with Hitler in Munich to avoid a crisis  Britain and France allowed Hitler to annex the Sudentenland

27 CCzechoslovakia was not represented at the meeting and protested CChamberlain boasted of having achieving “peace for our time.” IIn reality, the world was on the verge of war TTHE END

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