Messerschmitt Bf109 E version flew in 1939 with a 920hp Daimler-Benz DB601Aa engine. Maximum speed = 347mph, height =34,450 ft. range = 410 miles. (by 1942: 1500 hp and 428 mph). 20mm cannon in the propeller hub and two 7.9mm machine guns; 35,000 built
Road to Pearl Harbor 1920-35: naval disarmament in Pacific 1930-45: J Army crushes democracy 1931 Manchuria: seized by J Army – China: weak; war w Japan '37-45 US: strongly favors China, anti-Japan – No neutrality – Arm China; send air force
1940-41 Axis (1940); Tokyo close ally of Berlin? Not. – J focus on China, not Pacific, not USSR – little or no coordination; no sharing technology 1941: FDR threatens Japan: no steel, no oil – demand withdraw from China & Vietnam – key goal: stop Japan from killing USSR
Japan’s choices, 1941 China USSR Britain, Australia, Netherlands USA
Japanese Navy vs. US superior: night-fighting, optics, torpedoes, aggressiveness & imagination – Zero best plane of 1941-42 (fast, long-range) – no innovation in airplanes equal: (at start:) ships & planes, gunnery, seamanship, admirals inferior: radio; radar; anti-aircraft; defense, logistics; repair; training; medicine; use of subs; poor teamwork with J Army; intelligence (MAGIC = decode J Navy)
US Leadership Roosevelt: Active Commander in Chief – Congress: Zip – Public Opinion = controlled – Joint Staff (Leahy) for planning – FDR close to Churchill Combined Staff (with Brits) War Dept (Stimson & civilians) – Army: Marshall, MacArthur, Eisenhower – Air Force: Arnold Navy Dept (Forrestal as key) – ADM King – Nimitz, Halsey, Spruance
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