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Typologies of Violence 1. Violence between states = war.

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Presentation on theme: "Typologies of Violence 1. Violence between states = war."— Presentation transcript:

1 Typologies of Violence 1. Violence between states = war

2 Violence and Modernity: War 1. Modernising war 2. Large-scale state violence within its own borders = terror 3. Mass violence in absence of overall state control = civil war (‘people’s war’; revolutionary war) 4. Violence of minorities aiming to overthrow the state = terrorism 5. Low-level repressive state violence = civil violence NB Weber’s definition of the state as the body holding a monopoly of organised violence

3 The problem to be considered Enlightenment expectations were that reason and science would succeed in building a harmonious, non-violent society – Voltaire Essay on War – Later in 19 th C Socialists like the Duc de St. Simon – trade and communications (railways) would so integrate the world that conflict would be impossible – Also Marx and the ideal state of Communism

4 The terrible reckoning of violence French revolutionary terror – 40,000 deaths Napoleonic wars – 1.8 million French and allies (inc 600,000 civilians) 1.5 million allied forces (Britain, Russia, Austria, Spain, Italy, Prussia Total – 3.3 million

5 Deaths by category (France and allies) 371,000 killed in action 800,000 killed by disease, primarily in the disastrous invasion of Russia 600,000 civilians 65,000 French allies (mainly Poles fighting for independence lost in 1795) Total: 1,800,000 French and allies (mostly Germans and Poles) dead in action, disease and missing

6 War deaths Crimean War (1854-6) c. 600,000 American Civil War (1861-5) 750,000 (620,000 trad) World War 1 ( ) - 9m to 15m (6m ‘missing’)(6m civilians) Russian Civil War ( ) 10m Spanish Civil War (1936-9) – c. 500,000 World War 2 ( ) m dead (inc 27m USSR; 0.25m USA; 0.5m Britain)

7 Deaths in recent wars Vietnam ( ): The South c 1m dead (inc 58,000 US troops); The North 600,000 military – total of 2m – 4m for war Gulf War 1 Kuwait (1990-1) 190 coalition troops killed in action (189 died in accidents and ‘friendly fire’); 25,000 Iraqi civilians and soldiers Gulf War 2 – Iraq (March-May 2003) 172 coalition troops killed c.200,000 involved – 30,000 Iraqi troops and civilians killed) Afghan Wars – (15,000 Soviet military: 75,000 plus Mujaheddin; maybe ) 0.6 to 1.0m civilians ?? (3,162 coalition dead; 15,000 civilians; Taliban – unknown)

8 Why have wars expanded? 1. Technology – weapons derived from industry An army ‘marches on its stomache’ – Napoleon 2. Logistics – organisation 3. Soldiers – recruitment, conscription 4. Money = ever-larger tax revenues = modern state – prerequisite for mass warfare (+ ideology esp. Nationalism)

9 Military revolution - technology 1750 – muskets (accuracy 100/150 yards; 5 rounds per minute) - Cannon – shot and some crude shells = wars of mobility (cavalry) and close quarters fighting - bayonets, swords, daggers

10 Musket 18 th.c; Indian Cannon 1799

11 Military revolution - technology Begins to change in early 19 th C C 1850 – rifle (rifling in barrel) increases accuracy to 500 yards. Bullet magazines and rapid re-loading increase frequency of firing true rifle Gatling gun – hand-cranked machine gun; Maxim gun – automatic – 100s of rounds per minute

12 Military revolution - technology Second half of nineteenth century – Dynamite and high explosive (chemical industry) – Internal combustion engine – railways – Steel - e.g. armour plating of ships Leads to - dreadnoughts at sea long range artillery (20 miles by WW1) high-explosive shell. Obliterate anything exposed so Warfare becomes defensive – trenches (American CW and Russo-Japanese War as prototypes of First World War) (mortars yds define distance of trenches)

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16 Schlieffen Plan

17 Russian Attack on East Prussia

18 The Western Front

19 Battle of the Somme 1916

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22 Thiepval

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25 Military revolution - technology From WW1 to WW2 Aircraft – airships (derived from hot-air balloons) – failure cf gas - biplanes/triplanes – spotting; bombing; dogfights (NB first flight – 17 Dec 1903 – 120 ft; 12 seconds (7 mph) alt 10 ft.) Tanks (diesel engines)– to break through trenches

26 Blitzkrieg (lightning war) = blitzkrieg – massive concentration of power at a small point – punch hole in defence – pour through using mobile infantry, spread out and attack from behind

27 Blitzkrieg – Volkhov Jan 1942

28 Mass bombing Guernica 1937 c. 1000; Coventry 1940 c in two raids; Dresden (Feb 1945) c. 25,000; Tokyo (1945) 75,000 + Nuclear bombs - Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Aug 1945) 100,00 each

29 Guernica 1937

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31 Broadgate, Coventry 16 November 1940

32 Dresden Feb 1945

33 Nuclear Weapons Hiroshima Nagasaki

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35 Hiroshima August 1945

36 Genbaku – A bomb Dome Hiroshima 1945

37 Hiroshima 2006 – Ground Zero

38 lide 49 lide 49 een&v=slaNADrdPMA&NR=1 een&v=slaNADrdPMA&NR=1 &feature=endscreen&NR=1 &feature=endscreen&NR= A A

39 Military revolution - technology 1945 a kind of apogee – military development bifurcates: 1. The hi-tech path continues producing weapons that, in many cases, can scarcely be used World War 2 and beyond – Rockets – Katiushas; V1; V2 – missiles – ICBMs - mirv – Jet engines – Computers and communications (12 signals exchanged at Trafalgar: 50,000 per hour in Gulf War 1) – Cruise missiles; Drones

40 2. ‘Asymmetric warfare’- ‘People’s War’ Up to 1945 – size matters – the wealthiest and best equipped win. But ‘conventional’ war is increasingly challenged Post-1945 in anti-colonial and anti-imperialist wars small forces have sometimes prevailed over or counter-balanced the most advanced equipment – Guerilla and Revolutionary wars (‘People’s Wars) – China; Cuba; Latin America; Kenya; Malaya – Vietnam war – ‘bicycles versus B-52 bombers’ – Current wars in Middle East

41 NB – other components of military revolution 2. Logistics – organisation 3. Soldiers – recruitment, conscription 4. Money = ever-larger tax revenues = modern state – prerequisite for mass warfare (+ ideology esp. Nationalism)

42 Logistics and organisation In a modern army only around ten percent are frontline troops – the rest organise, plan, maintain, transport etc. Requires a major bureaucracy to sustain it with endless skills, technical, practical and managerial

43 Recruitment In 18 th c – volunteers, mercenaries, press-gangs Napoleon institutes first nationwide conscription – Levee en masse - originates in 1793 with CPS as a mass call to arms and defence (embryonic total war – men called to fight, women to work in factories – linked to emergence of citizenship) - institutionalised from 1797 on

44 Rise of Modern Nation State

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46 United States Federal, State and Local Government Spending Fiscal Year 1845 GDP: $1,842.0 million(1) Amounts in $ million FedGov. XferStateLocal Total Pensions Health Care Education Defense14.4a a Welfare Protection Transportation General Government Other Spending11.8a a Interest1a000 1a Balance0a000 0a Total Spending27.3a a Federal Deficit-7a000 -7a Gross Public Debt15.9a a Legend: a - actual reported source: usgovernmentspending.com

47 United States Federal, State and Local Government Spending Fiscal Year 1900 GDP: $20,567.0 million(1) Amounts in $ million FedGov. XferStateLocalTotal Pensions Health Care Education Defense331.6a a Welfare00000 Protection Transportation General Government Other Spending256.8a a Interest40.2a a Balance0a0000 a Total Spending628.6a a Federal Deficit-41a a Gross Public Debt2,137.00a000 2,137.00a Legend: a - actual reported source: usgovernmentspending.com

48 United States Federal, State and Local Government Spending Fiscal Year 1930 GDP: $91,200.0 million(1) Amounts in $ million FedGov. XferStateLocal Total Pensions21.2i015i48i 84.2i Health Care103.4i0196i217i 516.4i Education22.4i-11.2i243i2,027.00i 2,281.20i Defense1,465.30i000 1,465.30i Welfare3.5i-1i108i229i 339.5i Protection26i088i534i 648i Transportation372.9i-136.9i692i1, i2,036.10i General Government123.9i0106i339 i568.9i Other Spending899i-28.4i223i1, i2,377.60i Interest648.9i0100i573i 1,321.90i Balance269.6i0i3i10i 282.6i Total Spending3,956.10i-177.4i1,774.00i6, i11,921.70i Federal Deficit-874.1i i Gross Public Debt16,185.30a02,450.00i14, i33,523.30i

49 United States Federal, State and Local Government Spending Fiscal Year 1950 GDP: $293,700.0 million(1) Amounts in $ million FedGov. XferStateLocal Total Pensions994a0163a198a 1,355.00a Health Care963a0947a801a 2,711.00a Education2,839.00a-369a1,358.00a5,819.00a 9,647.00a Defense24,239.00a000 24,239.00a Welfare1,622.00a-1,346.00a3,583.00a1,830.00a 5,689.00a Protection88a0283a1,285.00i 1,656.00i Transportation1,122.00a-429a2,058.00a2, a5,066.00a General Government514a0317a724 a1,555.00a Other Spending6,605.00a-227a2,099.00a3, a12,197.00a Interest4,404.00a0109a349a 4,862.00a Balance1,410.00a0a-53a0a 1,357.00a Total Spending44,800.00a-2,371.00a10,864.00a17, a70,334.00a Federal Deficit1,273.00a000 1,273.00a Gross Public Debt256,853.00a05,285.00a18, a280,968.00a Legend: a - actual reported i - interpolated between actual reported values source: usgovernmentspending.com

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51 Violence and Modernity: War 2. Social costs and scars of war (achievements?)

52 As we have already seen the costs, scars and consequences of war are inseparable from its other aspects. We have been looking, for example at its interaction with the modern state. War is at the core of modern citizenship and the developing ideologies – especially nationalism – are geared to uniting people to fight. War is a, arguably the, main raison d’etre of the modern state.

53 Impacts associated with war economic development Technological, medical and scientific development Cultural/psychological impact Political manipulation Social change (gender roles; weakens class) Engenders revolutions Destroys empires and economies

54 Impacts 1 Economic Development Victory can strengthen a country’s economic grip by defeating a rival – classic example is Britain vs France Seven Years’ War and beyond Imperialism and imperial state War makes state a leading investor and/or customer War (and space) spending has a ‘Keynesian’ effect on economy ‘Military-industrial complex,

55 Impacts 2 Technological, medical and scientific development

56 Impacts 3 Cultural/psychological impact Enormous impact of war on culture high and low Goya and war painting from Napoleonic period From figurative to abstract art – music Tchaikovsky to Stravinsky – Painting - Kandinsky

57 Goya – Executions of the Third of May 1808

58 Goya Il Colosso

59 Goya from The Disasters of War

60 Salvador Dali Soft Construction

61 Robert Capa Death of a Loyalist Soldier 1936

62 Impacts 3 Cultural/psychological impact Enormous impact of war on culture high and low Goya and war painting from Napoleonic period From figurative to abstract art – music Tchaikovsky to Stravinsky – Painting - Kandinsky

63 Kandinsky 1908

64 Kandinsky 1912

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66 Kandinsky 1919

67 Kandinsky 1923

68 War Movies kI kI

69 Political Manipulation Chauvinistic military campaigns to influence elections (Falklands factor) French imperialism in N.Africa Bismarck

70 Social change gender roles; in mass warfare women move into ‘male’ civilian roles at work (what happens when the surviving men come back?) weakens class – ‘all in it together’

71 Rosie the Riveter (US WWII)

72 Ministry of Labour/ RoSPA UK 1943

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74 British Women Workers WW2

75 Engenders Revolutions Russian Revolution Chinese Revolution – People’s Liberation Army, Long March, Yunan Period

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77 Destroys Empires

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