Presentation on theme: "BEYOND THE MOVIE: PEARL HARBOR The goal: Cripple U.S. naval might in the Pacific, allowing Japan to seize control of the area."— Presentation transcript:
BEYOND THE MOVIE: PEARL HARBOR The goal: Cripple U.S. naval might in the Pacific, allowing Japan to seize control of the area.
U.S. Cuts off oil supply Japanese only had enough oil for 18 months FACT -The embargoed U.S. goods included one Japan could not live without – oil to fuel its war machine. Japanese military leaders warned that without oil, Japan could be defeated without its enemies ever striking a blow (6 months)
Roosevelt has meeting with his officials (prior to Pearl Harbor) Said that he was disappointed that Army wasn’t doing more for Allies in Europe (suggests more tanks be sent to help British and Russians) FICTION… the meeting took place in early 1941 when Russia was in peace treaty with Nazi Germany [didn’t become Allie until January 1942] THEORY – Roosevelt knew about impending attack but did nothing because he wanted the US to be drawn into the war
Japanese have council meeting - Japanese plan for 3 weeks to attack Pearl Harbor FICTION – WAY BEFORE THAT! 1940 – Spring – Japanese began conducting aerial torpedo exercises Early 1941 – Yamamoto began considering a surprise carrier-launched attack on U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor
Japanese Offensive– Wooden fins on torpedoes FACT The "impossible" task of an aerial torpedo attack was made possible. Conventional aerial torpedoes plunged to more than 100 feet in depth and ran a long distance to arm. – The 45-foot average depth of Pearl Harbor and the short runs necessary to sink ships there were dealt with by adding wooden fins to the torpedoes, altering the arming devices, and by training in simulated conditions. Pilots were combat veterans of the Japanese war in China – Carefully practiced the attack procedures and had specific targets assigned for the attack – “Better” fighters (A6M Zero) superior to Army’s P-40 Warhawk fighters
Pilot flying with the Royal Air Force (RAF) FICTION - Could not happen – Before 1941, active military personnel were not allowed to serve with a belligerent (in a state of war) nation that U.S. was neutral with (Britain) They would have lost their U.S. citizenship by accepting military commissions from a foreign government, making them ineligible to receive commissions from the U.S. In reality - would have had to resign from U.S. Air Corp and rejoin with the RAF
Boxing on the Arizona FACT - naval officers took part in writing letters, boxing and wrestling matches to pass the time in Hawaii
Black soldiers were discriminated against FACT U.S. military was still heavily segregated beginning of World War II – When FDR opened Navy up to African Americans, it was only in 1 area – they were called to be mass attendants, stewards, and cooks
Was Cuba Gooding, Jr’s character real? On the morning – he was doing laundry rounds when call to battle stations went out Everyone (even cooks) were assigned a combat task – His was antiaircraft battery magazine Was damaged by torpedo fire, he went above deck to help wounded He physically picked up the captain and brought him down to first aid station Went back and manned a.50 caliber machine gun (not trained on) Yes – Dorie Miller (ship’s cook) *was renowned as the best heavyweight boxer onboard the USS West Virginia (he was on this ship during Pearl Harbor) He received the Navy Cross for his actions however some argued he deserved the highest honor, the Medal of Honor Some dismiss Miller’s action (while exemplary) only received attention because gov’t was looking for Pearl Harbor heroes
Japanese did a fly over prior to the attack FICTION – Admiral Yamamoto failed to launch a planned aerial surveillance of Pearl Harbor, so he sailed into battle effectively blind
U.S. expected some sort of attack FACT - The U.S. military had broken Japan’s secret communication codes and learned that Japan was preparing for a strike (January 1941) But was dismissed by some as wild rumor. What it didn’t know was…where the attack would come…Pearl Harbor…the Philippines?
Was Captain Thurman real and did he predict Pearl Harbor attack? Captain Thurman (Dan Aykroyd) is Naval Intelligence decoder who predicts the invasion in the film, but the brass don't believe him. This character is not real, but based on a combination of different men with similar jobs.
U.S. decipher Japanese Conversations FACT - Effective cryptography and successful cryptanalysis were in their infancy at the time. – Under-funded, under-manned and under-equipped, cryptanalysts had been ordered to concentrate on Japanese diplomatic traffic, rather than naval messages. While there were veiled warnings and isolated events of Japanese hostilities in the weeks, days and hours ahead of the attack, no one in command at Pearl Harbor or in Washington, D.C., expected a Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, especially before war was formally declared.
Japanese sent false information to confuse U.S. FACT - The Japanese practiced radio deception “Every day false communications emanated from Kyushu (Intelligence and Communication center) at the same time and same wavelength…” Day of attack - flooded the airwaves announcing a possible attack on various targets throughout the Pacific. This confused the Americans and helped the Japanese use surprise to attack Pearl Harbor.
Spies in Hawaii? FACT - Takeo Yoshikawa, a Japanese naval reserve ensign Navy offered him a job with its general staff's intelligence division. For the next four years, the young man studied English and pored over everything available on the U.S. Navy and its Pacific Ocean bases. He was told late in 1940 that he was being posted to the American territory of Hawaii. There, posing as junior diplomat, he was to keep current on the status of the U.S. fleet and its anchorages, reporting his observations to Tokyo by coded telegraph messages. Yoshikawa had given the Japanese navy invaluable information for its upcoming surprise attack.
Boats and planes were bundled FACT Of the 100 ships in Pearl Harbor, the primary targets were the eight battleships anchored there and tied together. – Seven were moored on Battleship Row At the airfields, planes were crowed together
Films about the war in Europe were released FACT – did show newsreels prior to movies
Radar saw Japanese planes FACT - a young radar operator did indeed see the massive Japanese approach, but was told not to worry about it as the officer in charge thought it was only a group of B-17 Flying Fortresses returning to Hawaii from training in California.
Japanese subs trying to get into Pearl Harbor? During WWII, the Japanese Navy deployed hundreds of different sorts of submarines, but on December 7 th, they debuted a particularly secret weapon—a midget sub. – Five furtively made their way toward Pearl Harbor to attack U.S. battleships. GOAL - was to sink any American warships which escaped the Japanese carrier force. FACT - In the hours before dawn, U.S. Navy vessels spotted an unidentified submarine periscope near the entrance to Pearl Harbor. It was attacked and reported sunk by the destroyer USS Ward (DD- 139) and a patrol plane.
Torpedoes in water FACT - The patrol ship USS Condor spotted a sub in restricted waters just inside the harbor and contacted the USS Ward, which raced to the scene and opened fire. – A second Japanese midget sub actually penetrated Pearl Harbor's inner defenses and fired two torpedoes. Both missed and the sub was rammed and sunk – A third midget sub broaching the surface as it fires a torpedo towards US warships. – A fourth ran aground and it's commander was captured, the first prisoner of war taken by the US in World War 2. Sailors really did report feeling torpedoes skim past their legs when they were in the water
Lost track of whole Japanese fleet FACT - They did disappear from radars Came in from the North and Japanese fleet had been ordered into radio silence
December Japanese surprise attacks Pearl Harbor FACT - The Japanese aircraft achieved complete surprise when they hit American ships and military installations on Oahu shortly before 8:00 a.m., attacking military airfields at the same time they hit the fleet anchored in Pearl Harbor. The Navy air bases at Ford Island and Kaneohe Bay, the Marine airfield at Ewa and the Army Air Corps fields at Bellows, Wheeler and Hickam were all bombed. The purpose of the simultaneous attacks was to destroy the American planes before they could rise to intercept the Japanese as they bombed the harbor
Japanese carrier planes waiting to take off. Observing radio silence and taking advantage of squally (stormy) weather and coming in from the North, the Japanese fleet arrives to Hawaii undetected. Planes were heavily laden with fuel and bombs
Dec Japanese bomber over Hickam field (US army air force) (Hawaii). Notice large plumes of smoke.
Hickam Field. An army B17 bomber lies cut in half.
US airfield under attack- notice all the planes lined up in neat rows. Easy targets for the Japanese fighters.
Japanese gunner waving the kids away FACT - It is believed that the Japanese crewman was apparently warning civilians on the ground to take cover since they were going to attack.
The attack on Pearl Harbor lasts about 40 minutes. FICTION Just under two hours The first wave of Japanese planes flew in from the north, achieving a complete surprise attack at 7:55 a.m.. At 8:45 a.m., a second wave continued the bombardment and the last attacker flew away at approximately 9:45 a.m.
Danny says "I think World War II just started” This makes little sense for a number of reasons. #1 - In 1941, World War I was still called The Great War (it wasn't officially called World War I until 1948, so the term 'World War II' had no meaning at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack) #2 – Danny’s assessment that World War II began with Pearl Harbor is inaccurate. - American involvement began with the attacks, but the European portion of the war had been going on since 1939, when Germany invaded Poland.
There was little resistance FICTION - Taken by surprise, the U.S. forces immediately responded to the attack with 5 minutes. – Navy ships in the harbor opened fire with antiaircraft guns ASAP (credited with 15 planes shot down) – On shore, Army P-36 and P-40 fighters managed to take off and shot down as many as 10 Japanese planes – One Japanese plan shot down from small-arms fire over Fort Shafter
Admiral Kimmel – Commander of Pacific fleet was golfing on the day of the attack FALSE He did have a golf date with his military counterpart Lt. General Short BUT before he had time to eat breakfast and dress, he received word that a destroyer on patrol at the entrance to Pearl Harbor had sighted and sunk an enemy submarine.
Admiral Kimmel – Commander of Pacific fleet He was blamed for not being ready – Relieved of his duties about a week later – Most Historians say that Kimmel received several warnings about a possible attack on Pearl Harbor, but felt they were too vague and chose to dismiss them Spent rest of his life saying he was unfairly blamed Update: In 2007, Congress voted to exonerate him and Walter Short of dereliction of duty in connection with the attack
2 Main Characters were real pilots FICTION (and FACT) There never were any pilots by the names of Rafe McCawley and Danny Walker. – However, these two pilots are supposed to be based on Second Lieutenants George Welch and Kenneth Taylor.
2 pilots getting into planes and shooting down Japanese after initial attack FACT - Welch and Taylor did race in a Buick to an airfield during the attack - They were the first two pilots off the ground - Welch and Taylor were responsible for taking down at least 6 of the 29 Japanese aircrafts that were lost. However, the love story with the nurse that is shown in the movie never occurred with Welch and Taylor. – Additionally, Welch and Taylor did not participate in the Doolittle Raid,
The two real pilots (Welch and Taylor) supposedly did not appreciate how they were depicted in the film. Taylor was quoted saying that the film was "a piece of trash; over- sensationalized and completely distorted”
Number of Japanese planes and bombers attack Pearl Harbor Japanese Navy Zero fighter planes (superior to U.S. fighters) In the film they are colored a dark green, where in reality they were a light gray. Over 420 attacked Pearl Harbor
A Japanese carrier torpedo bomber. When was the last time you saw more than 2 airplanes in the sky at once? Just imagine what 400 would be like …
Over 3000 killed FACT - The Navy and Marine Corps suffered a total of 2,896 casualties The Army lost 228 killed or died of wounds, In addition, at least 57 civilians were killed and nearly as many seriously injured
Soldiers being burned from oil FACT – As the attacked continued, desperate men raced for safety by leaping into the waters of a harbor that was coated with oil and beginning to burn.
Japanese withdrew their third wave FACT – Third wave was planned – an attack which would target the dockyards, maintenance shops, and oil depots – But Japanese Admiral felt it was too big a risk as the Japanese had lost the element of surprise, and the US Navy and Army were beginning to mobilize.
Destruction of ships and planes Within 15 minutes – main battle line was neutralized… The battleships California, Oklahoma, West Virginia, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona were sunk Maryland, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania were damaged TOTAL OF 96 vessels at Pearl Harbor *All together the Japanese sank or severely damaged 18 ships, including the 8 battleships, 3 light cruisers, and 3 destroyers On the airfields the Japanese destroyed 161 American planes (Army 74, Navy 87) and seriously damaged 102 (Army 71, Navy 31).
Ships were sunk – Men stuck and drowned trapped in ship FACT USS Arizona, the final resting place for many of the 1,177 crewmen killed – is still at the bottom of Pearl Harbor
Ships were sunk – Men stuck and drowned trapped in ship USS Oklahoma, rolled over – men were trapped upside down – started banging on the bulkhead trying to get attention of passing small boats (died from suffocation) = 395 men and 20 officers
One ship has turned over, and fires burn unchecked everywhere.
US ships sinking at anchor. With the air force destroyed, the naval ships were now easy targets. Many sailors found ammunition stores locked as a peacetime security measure.
Nurse Betty dies in attack FICTION - No Navy Nurses died as a result of enemy action during the entirety of World War II, including the attack on Pearl Harbor In addition, Nurse Betty who claimed she lied was only 17 - FICTION …Navy nurses HAD to have 3 years training prior (which she would have had when she was 14)
Nurses marked wounded with lipstick FACT – Nurses did mark patients that had received morphine with an "M", marking them with a "C" for critical, and "F" for fatally wounded Also, when running out of ink from their pens, they actually did use lipstick to mark patients instead.
Asian Doctors and Nurses were treated harshly by some wounded FACT - Asian nurses and doctors were often discriminated against and soldiers would refuse to be treated by them
Memorial service FACT - Two services – Nuuanu Cemetery and Red Hill Large trench dug – (chaplains demanded that each plot be surveyed and marked) Firing squad and bugler lined the trenches Three chaplains present – Protestant, Catholic, and Jewish If faith was known, that chaplain would step forward and conducted the internment – If unknown, all three
Japanese Commander says that they “have just awoken a sleeping giant” FICTION - Also said in the movie Tora! Tora! Tora! Is yet to be verified that Yamamoto ever said this (Tora! Producer claims it was found in his diary and letter he wrote – but can’t find either) True that Yamamoto believed that Japan could not win a protracted (long, drawn-out) war with the U.S.
FDR’s Speech – asks Congress to declare war FACT - Day after (Dec 8th) - FDR addressed Congress and asked for a Declaration of War with Japan The Senate and House approved war unanimously EXCEPT for one – Congresswoman Jeannette Rankin – first woman elected to Congress “As a woman, I can’t go to war and I refuse to send anyone else”
U.S. discusses retaliation The scene where Roosevelt demands that the Army and Navy find a way to strike back at Japan but is told by the Admiral and General that such an attack is impossible is entirely fictitious, no such scene ever took place In reality, they were as many advocates of striking back directly at Japan as was Roosevelt himself
FDR (polio-strictened) stands up out of wheelchair FICTION - NO historical record of this – – Without braces on his legs, Roosevelt could barely stand – Historian say he always tried to disguise his disability
America bombed Japan – America makes top-secret retaliation FACT - Doolittle Raid – April 1942 First air raid by the U.S. to strike the Japanese homeland Vitale moral boost and opportunity for U.S. retaliation after the Pearl Harbor attack Bomb military targets and then land in China FICTION - 2 pilots (movie) were NOT involved FACT – did wire the peace medals to the bombs
Doolittle Raid – April 18, 1942 FACT – Japanese boats were encountered. These were evaded or sunk, but got off radio warnings, forcing the planes to take off around 8 AM, while still more than 600 miles out. An Army Air Force B-25B bomber takes off from USS Hornet. None of the B-25 pilots, including Doolittle, had ever taken off from an aircraft carrier before
Target - military and industrial targets in Tokyo, Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka and Nagoya Although some B-25s encountered light antiaircraft fire and a few enemy fighters, none were shot down or severely damaged. 15 of the 16 planes then proceeded across the East China Sea towards eastern China, where recovery bases supposedly awaited them Problems - low fuel, bad weather, night approaching – One of the B-25s ran extremely low on fuel and headed for Russia, which was closer. When they landed their B-25 was confiscated and the crew interned until escaping in May 1943.
As a result of these problems Crews realized they would not be able to reach their intended base in China, leaving them the option of either bailing out over eastern China or crash landing along the Chinese coast.
When the action was over, 15 planes had been destroyed in crashes 3 Raiders were killed during their attempts to land in China. 8 were captured by the Japanese – 3 were executed and a fourth died of disease in prison. – Most of the B-25 crews that came down in China eventually made it to safety with the help of Chinese civilians and flew other wartime missions. But the Chinese paid dearly as the Japanese killed approx. 250,000 civilians while searching for Doolittle’s men.
Aftermath Bombs did little material damage. Nevertheless when the news of the raid was released American morale soared.
The raid also had a strategic impact on the war. Japanese Response – The Japanese military recalled many units back to the home islands for defense, where they remained while battles raged throughout the Pacific. Additionally, it provoked Admiral Yamamoto into attempting a hastily organized strike against Midway Island that resulted in the loss of 4 fleet carriers, many sailors and a number of highly trained aircrew from which the Imperial Japanese Navy never recovered.
Pearl Harbor’s Impact on the Japanese Anti-Japanese sentiments had existed in US for several decades prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor. During that time, more than 119,000 people of Japanese ancestry, two-thirds of them American citizens, were living in California, Washington, and Oregon. The attack of Pearl Harbor shocked the American public, resulting in widespread hysteria and paranoia... (www.usatoday.com/.../contenttemplate14.htm)www.usatoday.com/.../contenttemplate14.htm
Tomorrow - Japanese Internment Camps Read EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 tonight for Homework – Answer 2 Questions