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Topic D6: Crises, Ideology, Conflict and Retreat: the USA in Asia, 1950-73 Lesson A-1. Introduction US & Asia at the end of WW2: 1.The basic geography.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic D6: Crises, Ideology, Conflict and Retreat: the USA in Asia, 1950-73 Lesson A-1. Introduction US & Asia at the end of WW2: 1.The basic geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic D6: Crises, Ideology, Conflict and Retreat: the USA in Asia, Lesson A-1. Introduction US & Asia at the end of WW2: 1.The basic geography of east Asia 2.The situation at the end of World War II: The triumph of the USSR and USA The Partition of Korea

2 1. The basic geography of east Asia On your outline map identify: 1.Korea 2.China 3.Vietnam 4.Laos 5.Cambodia 6.Japan 7.Malaysia 8.Indonesia 9.The Philippines 10.Taiwan

3 The Basic geography of east Asia

4 1. The basic geography of east Asia On your outline map identify: 1.Korea 2.China 3.Vietnam 4.Laos 5.Cambodia 6.Japan 7.Malaysia 8.Indonesia 9.The Philippines 10.Taiwan

5 On your outline map identify: 1.China 2.North Korea/South Korea 3.The Yulu (Yalu) River 4.Pyongyang 5.Mountainous areas 6.Seoul 7.Inchon 8.Pusan 9.Japan th parallel The basic geography of North and South Korea

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9 The situation at the end of World War II: The triumph of the USSR and USA Work in pairs and see how much information you already know about the end of WW2 1.Identify the two alliances that fought World War Two; names and four or five main countries. 2.Identify the two main theatres of war. 3.Who was fighting whom in each theatre and why were they fighting?

10 The situation at the end of World War II: The triumph of the USSR and USA Work in pairs and see how much information you already know about the end of WW2 4. Who were the ‘Big Three’ who led the Grand Alliance? (countries and leaders) What do you think their joint war aims would have been? 5. Briefly describe how the war ended in each theatre – who would you say won?

11 The situation at the end of World War II: The triumph of the USSR and USA Work in pairs and see how much information you already know about the end of WW2 6. Write a list of five (or more) ideological beliefs and policy aims that would define capitalism and communism 7. Why would there be such strong antagonism between capitalism and communism? 8. ‘The end of World War Two ushered in an era of bipolar international relations.’ What does this statement mean

12 The basic ideological beliefs and policy aims that define capitalism and communism CapitalismCommunism The aim is economic equality that no-one shall be rich or poor; everyone is a worker The interests of collective society is more important than the Individual. The state is large and owns all economic activity on behalf of the people. People work together rather than competing with each other Individually. The state aims to look after all of the people to make sure they have good housing, food and jobs. The profits from business are spent by the state on behalf of the people or they are shared equally amongst all the Workers. Eventually there will be no private property, no conflict, no racism no sexism and no war because these are all caused by inequality and individualism. Communism arose in the C19th with the specific aim of destroying and replacing capitalism There is no economic equality there are rich people and there will be some relatively poor people Individual freedom is important Economic activity is created and owned by private individuals known as entrepreneurs. Everyone competes with each other to be as rich as possible and own as many things as they can Competition between individuals leads to progress and wealth for all. The profits from private businesses is kept by the owners who give some back to the workers as wages. The state is as small as possible and does a limited amount for the people, it will not aim to house, feed or employ everyone. Communism is a ridiculously utopian and morally incorrect ideology that will lead to the enslavement of individuals by a huge dictatorial state.

13 A very short history of Communism In the late C18th and early C19th a remarkable economic revolution began in the United Kingdom. New attitudes towards business, technology and innovation created new methods of industrial manufacture such as steam powered machines and factory production. This ‘Industrial Revolution’ spread rapidly across Europe and America. Eventually the new era of capitalism would change the entire world and usher in a new era in human history marked by incredible an incredible growth in some peoples’ standard of living and a vast, ever-improving range of consumer goods. Along with this economic change a new social and political order emerged focusing on democratic ideas of individual rights and freedoms. Which all sounds great but … mm

14 A very short history of Communism As these huge economic changes gathered pace they were accompanied by huge demographic changes. For the mass of the poor working population it did not seem that the new economic system was necessarily an improvement. In the new overcrowded unsanitary cities millions lived in shockingly poor housing. In the factories and mines the work was long dangerous and poorly paid. In the mid C19th political activists began to study the new system and to protest against it. By far the most important of these people was Karl Marx. Working in London he undertook and huge analysis of the workings of capitalism. Marx developed a body of ideas which suggested that capitalism must be overthrown and replaced by a better, fairer system called socialism or communism. These ideas were to have a huge effect in the history of the C20th. In 1917 a revolution inspired by Marxist ideas took place in Russia. The new USSR set about spreading communism around the world and finishing off capitalist system

15 The situation at the end of World War II - The division of Europe There had been talks and plans for what would happen next at a series of wartime conferences. The overall aims for post-war Europe agreed by the allies were those of the Atlantic Charter; democracy and national self-determination. When the fighting stopped on VE Day (8 th May 1945) liberated Europe (the bits where the fascists had either governed or invaded) was occupied by different Grand Alliance armies. The Red Army in the eastern countries and the US/UK’s forces in the west. What happened between 1945 and 1949 is that Europe became divided by what Churchill famously described as an ‘Iron Curtain’. In the east where the Russians were communist ‘peoples’ democracies ‘emerged. In the west ‘capitalist democracy’ was the preferred system of government. The former allies became involved in a bitter disagreement about what was happening in Europe. Each blamed the other for the bitterness and division that had replaced the dream of post-fascist freedom and co-operation. War seemed a possibility.

16 The situation at the end of World War II – The division of Europe

17 The situation at the end of World War II: The Partition of Korea Read Stewart Chapter 1. Explain how and why Europe divided after WW2. Read pages 17 & 18 Explain how the ending of the war against Japan led to a division in Korea.

18 The situation at the end of World War II: The Partition of Korea become formalised In the short term, pending the return of Korean independence, Korea, a Japanese colony since 1910, was to be occupied north of the 38th parallel by Soviet Russia. To the south, a United States military administration under the direction of General Douglas MacArthur would control the area from its headquarters in Tokyo. In the South, after corrupt elections, the Americans backed a government led by Syngman Rhee who was an oppressive anti-communist. The American-trained South Korean army was limited to a lightly armed gendarmerie, lacking tanks, combat aircraft and all but a small amount of field artillery. In the North, the Soviets backed a Stalinist communist government led by anti-Japanese guerrilla leader Kim Il-sung who created the North Korean Peoples' Army, equipped with Russian tanks and artillery. Both Korean leaders openly expressed their desire and intention to re- unite the country as soon as possible.

19 The situation at the end of World War II: The Partition of Korea become formalised What both of the former allies, the USA and the USSR did in Korea was in many ways obvious and understandable They put in place of Japanese occupation governments friendly towards them and their interests. Governments which reflected the political and economic systems they knew and favoured. Why would they do anything else? Especially after such a long and costly war against bitter enemy states. The problem was that the two erstwhile allies were becoming very paranoid and distrustful of each other’s motives... What the USA and USSR did in Korea is remarkably similar to divisive events in Europe that are regarded as having started the Cold War.

20 Homework Read and take supplementary notes from Stewart Chapter 1.

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25 The situation at the end of World War II: The triumph of the USSR and USA Origins of Cold War before WW2 (Definitions; Capitalists and Communists, 1917 Russian Revolution, USA and USSR ) World War Two (The formation and aims of the Grand Alliance, the Atlantic Charter 1940)) Yalta Conference February 1945 (Plans for post war Germany, Poland and the end of the war against Japan) Between Yalta and Potsdam ( death of Roosevelt, VE, the cost of the war, the position of the allied armies) Potsdam Conference July/August 1945 (Poland, leadership changes, Germany/Berlin and the A Bomb) End of the war against Japan (Soviet entry, Hiroshima/Nagasaki, post-war occupation of Japan) Soviet consolidation in Eastern Europe (Poland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Western consolidation in Western Europe Italy and France)

26 The situation at the end of World War II: The Partition of Korea

27 The situation at the end of World War II: Civil war in China

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