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How far did British society change, 1939–1975?

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Presentation on theme: "How far did British society change, 1939–1975?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How far did British society change, 1939–1975?
Revision for the British Depth Study

2 The paper Main focus of the exam will be analysis and evaluation of sources But you need to also use your knowledge and understanding of the time period to help you answer the questions There will be a selection of sources and no fewer than five and no more than seven compulsory questions

3 The sources Written – memoirs, newspaper articles, extracts from history books, interviews Pictorial – posters, cartoons, photographs, paintings Statistical – tables, graphs

4 Types of questions Content – ‘What can you find out about X from Source Y?’ Purpose or message ‘What is the message of Source Y?’ Reliability – whether you trust a source, ‘How reliable is Source Y in explaining….? Usefulness – ‘How useful is Source Y in explaining ….?

5 Skills you need to show Cross-referencing – comparing two or more sources to see if they agree or disagress Evaluation skills

6 Handy Hints Read through the sources, captions and background information before you write anything! All the questions are about the sources – NEVER write an answer that makes no use of the sources! Write an appropriate amount for the amount of marks the question holds – don’t write 10 pages for a 6 mark question and only a short paragraph for a 12 mark question! Always make it clear what source you are talking about Always support your answers with examples and explanations.

7 Handy Hints Don’t try and reach a judgement about a source just because of the type of source it is Knowing that a source is an eyewitness account, a photograph or a memoir does not, in itself, mean that it is reliable or useful! Do not say it is unreliable because it was written much later than the event Remember there are no right answers, - there are high marks for intelligent answers – use the sources well and support your answers = high marks!

8 Handy Hints Use the sources that the question tells you to!
You can use sources that the question doesn’t mention if you really think it will help your write a better answer Show your knowledge by Explaining the meaning of a source or the possible purpose of a source Deciding if a source is accurate – check it against what you know about the events Comment on authorship – you might know something about the author which will help you decide if you trust a source

9 Handy Hints The final question
It will ask you to reach a conclusion about he issue under investigation Make sure you base your answer on the sources Remember the sources will always support two different viewpoints Make sure you explain how they support one viewpoint and then show how other source support the other view point. Comment on the reliability of some of the sources – this will help you reach a conclusion

10 What impact did the Second World War have on the British people?

11 World War II It had a far more significant impact on the British population than WWI. This was mainly due to the threat of the German bombers and the effect the bombing raids had upon the British people.

12 There were five main areas in which the impact of the war was most acutely felt…
German Blitzkrieg the constant bombing campaign of British cities until May The aim was to demoralise the country but it had the reverse effect on the British people – they became more determined to defeat Hitler. It did cause a great deal of destruction – 40,000 civilians killed and more than a million houses were damaged or destroyed in London alone!

13 2. Rationing – it was introduced so that the population didn’t starve because of the restrictions on food imports. Everyone was issued with an identity card and ration book. The ration books contained coupons that were signed by the shopkeeper every time rationed goods were bought – this meant that people could only buy the amount that they were allowed.

14 3. Evacuations – because of the Blitz, large numbers of people, mainly children, were evacuated to safer areas of the country. Some children were even sent abroad (e.g. Canada, the USA, Australia). A consequence was that many people in the countryside discovered the poor health and hygiene of British children. This helped pave the way for the Beveridge report.

15 4. Women – women made an enormous contribution to the war effort
4. Women – women made an enormous contribution to the war effort. The Women’s Land Army and Women’s Voluntary Service both played a big part in keeping Britain working during the war years. Women also joined the armed forces and even served as secret agents in occupied France. Women also worked in civil defence, munitions factories, construction and manufacturing. They also looked after families in the absence of fathers.

16 5. Beveridge Report – a report on the effectiveness of existing scheme of social security. Identified the five evils in society WANT DISEASE IGNORANCE SQUALOR IDLENESS In 1945 the new Labour Govt set out to solve these problems. The set up a series of Welfare Reforms that would care for people from the ‘cradle to the grave’. The new reforms included the National Health Service

17 2. What immigrants were living in Britain in 1945?

18 During the war the Allies captured thousands of German and Italian troops in Europe. Consequently over 300,000 German and Italian Prisoners of War were brought to Britain. After the war many of these decided to stay in Britain. The contribution of GI’s and Commonwealth soldiers were hugely significant to the Allied victory in Europe and many of these soldiers continued their lives in Britain after the war. In addition, there were Italians, Poles, Ukrainians and Austrians

19 3. Why did different groups migrate to Britain between 1948 and 1972?
Causes of immigration

20 The 1948 British Nationality Act
Confirmed the right of Commonwealth citizens to come and settle in Britain. All citizens of the Commonwealth could freely come to Britain regardless of their race, religion or colour.

21 2. Likelihood of finding work
Severe labour shortages in Britain after WW2 so jobs were readily available. Recruiting campaigns were run in the West Indies to attract workers to take up employment with expanding organisations such as London Transport and the NHS. Immigrants could earn up to 30x more than they could in their country of origin.

22 3. Romantic vision of Britain
Many potential immigrant groups had a romantic and glamourized image of Britain. They had been taught at school to regard Britain as the ‘Mother Country.’ In schools they learned about English literature and history, which sparked a natural curiosity to come here.

23 4. Economic problems at home
Most immigrants came from poor countries There were often significant economic problems including poverty, unemployment, and a high birth rate. Though economic factors were a big cause of immigration, typical migrants were not unemployed and had above-average skills.

24 5. Violence at home Fear was another reason why immigrants came to Britain in the 1950s. Many left India because they wanted to escape from the disruption and violence during the partition of India Many others left because of violence at home also

25 6. Other factors Expulsion from their own countries e.g. Ugandan President Idi Amin expelled 50,000 Asian Ugandans.

26 4. What were the experiences of immigrants in Britain?

27 Stage 1 – A gradual uneasy welcome
Immigrants usually settles in a relatively small number of towns and cities because they were discriminated against in housing. Stage 2 – Increased tension (riots in 1958) Unrest between Teddy Boys and immigrants during the Summer of Violence. Violence occurred between 30th August and 5th September.

28 The era of unrestricted entry to the UK was over
Stage 3 – Conservative govt gets tougher on immigration laws (Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962) The era of unrestricted entry to the UK was over Stage 4 – Labour Govt attempts to protect immigrants (Race Relations act 1965 & 1968 – made it illegal to discriminate on grounds of race in public places but the legislations did not fully succeed in changing attitudes

29 Stage 5 – Enoch Powell and the ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech 1968
Stage 5 – Enoch Powell and the ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech Showed that anti-immigration feelings certainly existed in Britain. Stage 6 – the Establishment of the National Front Extremely right wing, its purpose was to oppose immigration and multicultural policies in Britain.

30 5. What contribution had immigrants made to British society by the early 1970s?

31 Establishment of permanent communities Festivals and celebrations
Certain areas of cities became associated with particular immigrant groups e.g. Limehouse in London - Chinese Economic impact There are many examples of where immigrants have added huge value to the British economy, textiles was one major area. Festivals and celebrations The carnival was a notable contribution of West Indian immigration to British society. It was in effect a demonstration by which migrants asserted their right to be in the UK. Music Throughout the 1960s migrants music attracted and inspired a generation of white working-class youths, in particular, the arrival of reggae music.

32 6. What was the impact of the National Health Service on people’s lives?

33 What was the National Health Service?
1946 National Health Service Act – provided medical treatment – either in hospital or from a GP. Dental and optical treatment was also included Hospitals were now all controlled by the government Came into operation in July 1948 Aneurin Bevan was the health minister at the time and was the person responsible for the Act – but much of it stemmed from the Beveridge Report.

34 Problems Proved to be extremely popular!
187 million prescriptions were written and 8 million pairs of glasses were dispensed! Spending on the NHS became much higher than predicted From its earliest days the NHS seemed to be short of money The £2 million that was put aside for glasses in the first 9 months was used up in 6 weeks! Some charges were introduced e.g. false teeth and glasses.

35 7. What was life like for most women in the 1950s?

36 Changes during WW2 Women had played a huge part in fighting the war on the home front. There were some positive changes School meals were available for children – allowing women to work all day 1943 Equal Pay Commission – however this proved in efficient 1945 Butler Education Act – guaranteed all females the right to a secondary education.

37 The 1950s The cult of domesticity –encouraged the traditional role of women as home-makers, this was encouraged by much commercial advertising. Changes in education – 1944 Education Act- outlawed the sacking of women teachers who were married, while the provision of good-quality education widened women’s horizons. By the early 1960s a third of university undergraduates were women. Wages – between the 1920s and 1970s women earned on average 50% of what men did!

38 8. How were women discriminated against in the 1960s and early 1970s? 9. What factors led to changes in the roles of women?

39 The feminist movement of the 1960s and 1970s
The slow pace of change in women’s lives after WW2 frustrated many women A feminist movement to campaign for women's rights and interests emerged.

40 Discrimination Equal pay – women were paid on average ¾ of the salary paid to a man doing the same job. A deeply held belief that a woman’s job was marriage, home-making and children Action – women held strikes, set up organisations, held rallies, lobbied MPs In 1970 the Equal Pay Act was approved and came into full effect in 1975

41 discrimination Sex Discrimination Act 1975 – this established the Equal Opportunities Commission – its main duties were to eliminate discrimination, promote equality and keep an eye on the workings of the Equal Pay Act

42 Women’s Liberation Movement
By the end of 1969 there were about 70 ‘women’s lib’ groups in Britain It really got underway in the 1970s Feb 1970 the first Women’s National Conference was held and it was attended by over 500 women. They demanded equal pay, free contraception, abortion on demand and 24hr nurseries.

43 Big changes! The Pill 1961 – gave women more control over their lives – they married and started families later. This increased women’s opportunities in education and employment. Abortion Act 1967 – came into effect Made abortion legal in the UK. Divorce Reform Act 1969 – allowed divorce on the grounds of adultery, cruelty, desertion for at least 2 years, or by mutual consent after 2 years – or 5 years if only one party wants a divorce

44 10. How much change had taken place for women by 1975?

45 Mothers need reliable childcare I run the home an look after children.
I am as capable of running a company as any man! The Law says I cant be discriminated because I’m a woman! Reliable contraception and access to abortion mean that we have more choices and control. Mothers need reliable childcare I run the home an look after children. Men should hold important managerial jobs – I wouldn’t feel comfortable telling a man what to do. If you do the same work you should get the same money I was afraid of getting pregnant before I got married and now I'm worried about having too many! I want a career as well as a marriage and family –why cant we have both – men do! The Modern Woman My husband is the wage earner I would never expect to earn the same as a man

46 I run the home an look after children. My husband is the wage earner
I was afraid of getting pregnant before I got married and now I'm worried about having too many! Reliable contraception and access to abortion mean that we have more choices and control. Men should hold important managerial jobs – I wouldn’t feel comfortable telling a man what to do. I want a career as well as a marriage and family –why cant we have both – men do! Mothers need reliable childcare I would never expect to earn the same as a man The Modern Woman I am as capable of running a company as any man! The Law says I cant be discriminated because I’m a woman! If you do the same work you should get the same money

47 11. What was it like growing up in the 1950s?

48 Teenagers in the 1950s The term ‘teenagers’ was not used until 1950
Often people would get married an move out of their parents home by the time they were 21 Teenagers of this period changed this – they began to reject the seemingly dull, timid, old-fashioned and uninspired British culture around them They sought new pleasures and activities that were often totally at odds to what their parents thought was acceptable!

49 12. Why were there changes in the lives of teenagers in the 1960s?

50 Teenagers in the 1960s - Influences
1. Cultural influences Film, television, magazines, rock music. In particular American influences on European teenagers – Rock and Roll (Elvis), Film stars (James Dean) Impacted fashion, language and activities

51 Teenagers in the 1960s - Influences
2. Consumer goods Provided teenagers with the tools to cultivate their own styles in clothes, haircuts, and even travel. This spearheaded a generation gap between parents and their children

52 Teenagers in the 1960s - Influences
3. Financial power They had cash to spend on self-indulgent purchases e.g. they soon had their own fashions, music, cafes and by the end of the decade their own transport – scooters!

53 13. How did teenagers and students behave in the 1960s and early 1970s?

54 Changing behaviour 1. They worshipped their idols
Bands like The Beatles and The Rolling Stones came to be leaders of youth culture and were worshipped almost as gods by teenagers

55 Changing behaviour 2. They became more daring when it came to expressing themselves Teenagers adopted trend setting behaviour whereas before trends had been set for them The mini skirt – a controversial fashion trend of the 1960s

56 Changing behaviour 3. Emergence of youth subculture
Youth based subcultures became more visible e.g. Mods and Rockers Mods – viewed as sophisticated with their scooters Rockers – a more macho image on their motorcycles 1964 – several well publicised battles between the two groups at seaside resorts Later subcultures included hippies, skinheads and punk rockers

57 Changing behaviour 4. More violent and criminal behaviour
Teddy boys – played a role in attacking black people during Notting Hill riots. Teenage drug use – cannabis in particular

58 Changing behaviour 5. Public Protest
1858 the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was formed and organised well publicised protest marches 1960s political demonstrations which sometimes led to violence – the Vietnam War

59 14. How far did the lives of all teenagers change in the 1960s and early 1970s?

60 Education Free to all up to the age of 14
Managed under the Tripartite System Grammar schools – entry exam, academic focus Secondary technical schools – very few of these were built, focused on mechanical, scientific and engineering skills to serve industry and science Secondary Moderns - designed for the majority of pupils - those who did not achieve the grade needed for grammar schools

61 Secondary Moderns Criticised from the late 1940s for their perceived low standards Replaced with comprehensive schools in the 1960s Comprehensives provided free education from 11 to 16 years Prevented children who failed the 11- plus exam feeling like second class citizens

62 Expansion of university education
Post WW2 many new universities were founded (Warwick, Norwich, Kent, York) 30 new Polytechnics also set up 1960s and early 1970s witnessed an enormous expansion in the number of full-time university students. Grants and fees were also paid by Local Education Authorities – gave those from poorer backgrounds the opportunity to go to university.

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