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WW1-WW2 Nicholas Chamness Maddie Crawford Alex Kolb.

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1 WW1-WW2 Nicholas Chamness Maddie Crawford Alex Kolb

2 Woodrow Wilson 28th President, 1913-1921, Democrat, “Progressive President” ●Won do to a split in the republican party leading to democratic control of the White House and congress. ●In his first term Willson focused on domestic issues such as child labor, women's suffrage, and illegal business scandals ○His administration saw the passing of the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, Federal Farm Loan Act, Antitrust Act, and biggest of all an income tax ■Many believe his polocies led to the “boom” years of coolidges time ●His reelection campaign often revolved around the fact that “he kept us out of war” which was very effective but after he won the gloves were off and he got the U.S. involved shortly after ●President during WWI and drafted his 14 points. ○Passed Espionage Act of 1917 and sedition Act of 1918. Which prohibited interference with the military and limited free speech during wartime. ○Wilson was a strong supporter of the League of Nations, the first international organisation found with the purpose to maintain world peace, it was founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference but the senate never approved of the U.S. joining it because most republicans and many democrats did not want to be drawn back into a european war, which according to the treaty we would have to if another member was attacked. ●In his later years as president he saw diminishing health dealing with strokes and under constant surveillance from his wife. Many saw him as unfit for duty which is a reasonable statement because he was paralysed on the left side and could not see out of his left eye and only bearly with his right. ○He would make last ditch efforts to pass the leage of nations right before his term was up but it was long gone by then.

3 WILLSONS ACTS AND AMENDMENTS ●Federal Reserve Act 1913: Created a system of 8-12 private regional Federal Reserve Banks. Each had its district boundaries and branches. ○The act created a national currency that created a more stable financial system that responded better to different scenarios in our banking system ●Federal Trade Commission Act 1914: “Trust busting” was a major goal of the progressive presidents and this act established a body of 5, president appointed, men to 7 year terms, with the perpose of giving “cease and desist” orders to corporations they see as practicing unfair trade. ●Federal Farm Loan Act 1916: Law aimed to give more credit to family farmers. It created a federal farm loan board, they have 12 banks and dozens of loan associations. ●Antitrust Act 1914: was passed just 3 months after federal Trade Commision Act. It was another trust busting tecique. the act specified prohibited actions. ●17th amendment 1913: made for direct election of senators by state legislators. willson had little to do with this amendment as the process had started with taft but officially announced in Wilson's term. ●18th amendment 1920: One of the suffragettes greatest achievements and everyones favorite amendment deemed production, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal ○ Although it did sobre up the country to a small degree it increased organized crime rates and corruption of law enforcements ■ First and last amendment repealed. 21st amendment 1933 ●19th amendment: jk suffragettes actual great achievement the right to vote.

4 SUPREME COURT DECISIONS Social Ideology Bauer & CIE V. O'donnell - Defines procedures for use of copyrighted works Charlton V. Kelly- Defines procedures for foreign criminal suspects Weeks V. United States- Establishment of exclusionary rule for illegally obtained evidence Ocampo V. United States- An insular case, decision on what to do in regards to citizenship to annexed people The writers of the 1920s are regarded as the “lost generation.” the were those that grew up during WWI. Many of their works regarded a then modern society as being aimless hence “lost.” they generally did not like the american idea of always being in pursuit of more money, and low moral standards. this is why many of them ended up living and dying abroad. many of the greater authors include F. Scott Fitzgerald, T. S. Eliot, Ernest Hemingway, and the first american to win a nobel prize in literature Sinclair Lewis. His works are known to be critical of capitalism and materialism, but greatly respectful of working women.

5 Warren G. Harding 29th President 1921-1923, Republican ●He won on the basis of “returning to normalcy,” meaning a strong productive economy and little outside influence from foreign lands ●He is best know for the officials he appointed, including herbert hoover, charles evans, and the Ohio gang ○The Ohio gang were his friends and contributors he rewarded with powerful positions, that used their power in multiple illegal ways, including the Teapot Dome scandal, which resulted in multiple arrests of the Ohio gangs members ●his secretary of treasury Andrew Mellon was a successful businessman into oil, steel, and more. he was the 3 wealthiest man at the time and was well qualified for the job, he also served under coolidge and adn hoover. he wanted to reduce massive deficit brought by the war but did not think high taxes would work and people would just avoid them so he chose tax free municipal bonds. ●He tried in a lesser extent to continue wilsons aims at suffrage and minority rights. ●After the bosovik revolution in russia many became scared communist were working in our government this resulted in what known as the “red scare” ●Harding died of a heart attack august 2nd 1923 leaving Calvin Coolidge President

6 Hardings Acts ●Harding assumed presidency in the middle of a depression and sought to fix it through public work projects and lower taxes. ○His secretary of state andrew mellon conducted a study that showed as income tax increase the more money would disappear (gone abroad). so he concluded that lower taxes would mean higher revenue. the top marginal rate dropped 73% in 1921 to 25% in 1925. ●The Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921 regulated interstate commerce in livestock, dairy products, and poultry products. ●The Capper-Volstead Act gave exemptions to antitrust laws for certain agricultural products ●The future Trading Act- wa the second attempt to regulate future contracts. It was Instituted to regulate the gains of future contracts and, particularly, the exchanges on which they are traded. the act was deemed unconstitutional 4 years later and did not pass ●The revenue act of 1921 was a tax break to the wealthiest Americans from 65% to 50% in an effort to stir up the economy, the break was not a much as Mellon wanted but still did its job. ●He was a great believer in the new “modern” american society. He proclaimed ‘merica was the age of the motor car and thus expanded our highways in 1921 with the federal highway act and $162 million

7 Supreme Court Desisions In Newberry v. United states the supreme court ruled congress not have the power to regulate primary elections. this was a time when people were trying to keep campaigns between two men, the already passed the tillman act keeping corporations from directly financing campaigns. the United States v. Moreland case deemed hard labor as cruel and unusual punishment violating the 5th amendment. Although Hardings term was short, it was not a bad one, is term will ever be stained by the corrupt officials he appointed and many will forget the great social boom he made way for for coolidge. in the two years he had a working heart he took us out of the consequential post war depression, and set up policies that made the roaring 20’s possible with the low taxes and high number opportunities to buy things the country went into a great place to be.

8 Calvin Coolidge 30th President, 1923-1929, Republican Vice President to Harding 1921-1923 Took office following the sudden death of President Harding in 1923 Presidency classified as ‘the father’ of america during a time of societal transformation: The roaring Twenties as well as blamed for the Great Depression “Silent Cal” quiet natured but politically vigorous man 1924 Election: Won Electoral votes of 35 states Coolidge won decisively over Democratic candidate John W. Davis and Progressive candidate Robert La Follete despite the fact that he experienced subdued campaigning as his son passed and Coolidge became depressed. Coolidge popularity due to his success in his first year succeeding Harding by investigating crimes of Harding’s highest officials (Teapot Dome Scandal). The American people voted for Coolidge partly to thank him for bringing back honesty and trust to the White House following the crimes of the Harding administration. But the main reason was that they liked his conservative economic policies and his support of business and strong belief in private enterprise and small government.

9 The Washington Naval Treaty- also known as the Five-Power Treaty, limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States of America, Britain, Japan, Italy, and France. Restricted ship tonnage and no ship could exceed 35,000 tons nor carry a gun over 16 inches. United States of America World War I Veterans' Bonus Bill- thousands of veterans and their families, devastated by the Great Depression, participated in the “Bonus March,” descending on Washington, D.C. to lobby Congress for a cash payment which would amount to roughly $1,000 per veteran. Revenue Act of 1924- also known as the Mellon tax bill cut federal tax rates and established the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals, which was later renamed the United States Tax Court in 1942 federal tax U.S. Board of Tax Appeals United States Tax Court Revenue Acts of 1926 and 1928- reduced inheritance and personal income taxes, cancelled many excise imposts, eliminated the gift tax and ended public access to federal income tax returns. "In case a regulation or Treasury decision relating to the internal revenue laws is amended by a subsequent regulation or Treasury decision, made by the Secretary or by the Commissioner with the approval of the Secretary, such subsequent regulation or Treasury decision may, with the approval of the Secretary, be applied without retroactive effect." inheritance income taxes excise federal Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928- One of the things coolidge is most known for during his presidency. Proposal for a general pact against war, and after prolonged negotiations the Pact of Paris was signed by 15 nations—Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, and the United States. The contracting parties agreed that settlement of all conflicts, no matter of what origin or nature, that might arise among them should be sought only by pacific means and that war was to be renounced as an instrument of national policy.

10 S.C. Decisions: nominated Harlan Fiske Stone, who was confirmed by the Senate. Stone, when nominated, was currently serving as the United State’s Attorney General. Justice Stone was later nominated as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. President Coolidge signed the Judiciary Act of 1925 which allowed the Supreme Court to have more discretion over its workload. Technology: More middle class americans purchased and owned cars new household inventions such as the washing machine and vacuum decreased a woman’s workload in the home first president to address american public via Radio Charles Lindbergh- first solo airplane flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 Social Ideologies: spoke out in favor of the civil rights of African Americans and Catholics Immigration Act- new law reflected the desire of Americans to isolate themselves from the world after fighting the terrible First World War in Europe, immigration remained open to those with a college education and/or special skills, but entry was denied to Mexicans, and disproportionately to Eastern and Southern Europeans and Japanese Indian Citizenship Act- 1924 granting automatic American citizenship to Native Americans born in the United States. The law attempted to finalize Indian assimilation into white culture while permitting Indians to retain some of their tribal traditions. Native Americans United States

11 The Roaring Twenties: age of dramatic social and political change. For the first time, more Americans lived in cities than on farms. The nation’s total wealth more than doubled between 1920 and 1929, and this economic growth swept many Americans into an affluent but unfamiliar “consumer society.” A new, urban, “racy mass- culture” defined this age. Outlined by the Jazz Age, Prohibition, and the new life for women. Women: The 19th Amendment passed in 1920 gave women the right to vote which further spurred womens suffrage as millions of women began working white-collar jobs Women of the twenties were considerably ‘ bold’ for their time, sporting short hair cuts and dresses, drinking, dancing, were more sexually “free” and participated in activities deemed “unladylike” The Flapper- short-haired women who wore makeup and short clothing, danced and smoked to Jazz, an attractive an giddy young girl both with an astounding new image and attitude Increased availability of birth control solutions allowed for women to have fewer children Prohibition: 18th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1919, had banned the manufacture and sale of “intoxicating liquors” Passage of Volstead Act preventing sell and purchase of alcoholic beverages, closing down bars and saloons across america. did not prevent people from consuming alcohol, in fact some argue that it made it more desirable contributing cause to the ‘recklessness’ of the twenties as people drank illegally Alcohol was obtain through the rise of Gangsters and Speakeasies from which alcohol could be purchased. Al Capone- most infamous gangster during the twenties, known for his multi million dollar operation in bootlegging within Chicago. Was never brought in for bootlegging but put in jail in 1931 for Tax Evasion.

12 The Jazz Age: gave birth to popular Jazz artists such as King Oliver, Louis Armstrong, Kid Ory, and Duke Ellington Race Records- African American jazz music music heavily influenced by ragtime music which was previously popular in the early 1900s new dances evolved such as the Charleston, the cake walk, the black bottom, the flea hop Jazz bands played everywhere and phonograph records were sold in excess and radio stations developed allowing the music to spread nation wide younger generation loved ‘freedom’ it gave them on the dance floor often rejected as vulgar and depraving by older American people, but was widely loved and listened to across the youth population dance contests were held where partners would dance for hours on end until they couldn't anymore Literature and Art: Georgia O’Keeffe introduced “Modernism” as a new form of art, where art was expressed by the creators own experiences and feelings. Novels were written to directly relate to the ideals and institutions of the Twenties. Themes present through writers such as in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and Tales of the Jazz Age as well as John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath

13 Herbert Hoover 31st President,1929-1932, Republican presidency plagued by the Great Depression and grew severely unpopular secretary of commerce under both Harding and Coolidge dedicated to Humanitarian work during World War I 1928 Election: Hoover won a landslide victory over Democratic candidate Al Smith on pledges to continue the economic boom of the Coolidge years. Hoover stood by his idea of “Rugged Individualism” wanting limited roles for government and sought to prevent excessive government federal intervention. This later proved to be his downfall as he believed the Americans should help themselves in the Depression. Posed threat to capitalism and individualism.

14 Smoot-Hawley tariff- raised US tariffs to historically high levels, intended to increase protection for domestic farmers against foreign agricultural imports War Debts Commission- creation of a commision under Andrew Mellon to negotiate repayment agreements with Britain and france following world war one. Federal Farm Board-created 1929, before the stock market crash, but it was later enlarged to meet the economic crisis of farmers during the Great Depression, est. during the agricultural marketing act of 1929 with half a million dollars to promote agriculture. Agricultural Marketing Act- to establish the federal farm board and promote agriculture by loaning the farmer’s money, Hoover saw this as unconstitutional as he believed that it would create a dependency on the federal funds PECE-President’s Emergency Committee on Employment, was set up 1930 after unemployment rates reached 11%, strove to generate private charity and increase public works spending. Bonus Bill- mandated bonus for WW1 Veterans to be paid in 1945, today the sum would be equivalent to 32 Million Dollars as the depression grew more severe around 43000 Veterans and their families came to washington to lobby for immediate payment. Members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force camped in vacant federal buildings and southeast of the U.S. Capitol.

15 S.C, Decisions: The U.S. Supreme Court upholds the use of the pocket veto by the President for the purpose of blocking legislation. May 27, 1929 Technology: Amelia Earhart is first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean in 1932 “Star Spangled Banner” becomes national Song in 1931 construction contract for The Empire State building in 1929, to be finished in 1931 First Annual Academy Awards in 1929 The Great Depression: Hoover became president the year the Stock Market crashed as unemployment rates rose from 3-23% causes of the stock market crash: Buying on margin, Stock speculation, Panic Selling causes of the depression: Overproduction, Overextension of credit, Debt from WW1, Uneven distribution of wealth Voluntary Cooperation – asked for people to help through private charities “Rugged Individualism” – help yourself Hawley-Smoot Tariff – increased import taxes to protect US industries Reconstruction Finance Corporation – helped banks and large corporations Bonus Army – WWI vets marched on Washington to demand war bonus early Hoovervilles- shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression By 1930, 4 million Americans looking for work could not find it; that number had risen to 6 million in 1931 Bread lines, soup kitchens and rising numbers of homeless people became more and more common in America’s towns and cities Bank runs swept the United States again in the spring and fall of 1931 and the fall of 1932, and by early 1933 thousands of banks had closed their doors. In the face of this dire situation, Hoover’s administration tried supporting failing banks and other institutions with government loans; the idea was that the banks in turn would loan to businesses, which would be able to hire back their employees.

16 Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1933-1945 WWII-United States Involvement People to Know- Stalin,Roosevelt,Eisenhower,Churchill,Hitler,Mussolini,Hirohito,Tojo Causes- Rise of fascist leaders, bombing of Pearl Harbor, Treaty of Versailles, failure of appeasement, Lend-Lease act, Japanese embargo,Garden Hose speech. Effects- Rise if U.S as world power, U.S becomes military economy, Soviet/U.S split, rebirth of U.S economy, U.N created, communist spread, Europe split, racial tolerance amongst soldiers, rise of nuclear weapons Major Apects- Two fronts for U.S, “Island hopping”, Holocaust, Japanese-American internment, “unconditional surrender”, nuclear weapons, ally system Major Battles- Bulge/Buldge- Final effort of Germany-Allies win, Midway-Stop Japanese advance further east, D-day- Massive ally invasion of France, Hiroshima-Nagasaki-Bombing of Japanese cities to end war. This war gave a boost to the U.S as it came out of a depression and with newfound confidence after victory came out as a global power that would persist for decades

17 Franklin Delano Roosevelt 1933-1945 New Deal 1933-1937 -Era in which a series of political, and economic reforms were created to end the United States depression -3-R’s-Relief,Recovery,Reform. [ -“100 days”-First round of reforms that were meant to grant “immediate relief” to the economy. -Emergency Banking Act:Four day bank holiday, reinvigorate economy, confidence and opening of banks -CCC-Civilian Conservation Corps-Hire young workers to do small jobs and gain experience, boost confidence, give jobs, improve workers, rural development -AAA-Agricultural Adjustment Administration-Pay farmers to not plant, lowering of supply, raise prices and eliminate competition. -NIRA-National Industrial Recovery Act- End cutthroat competition, Deemed unconstitutional -PWA-Public Works Administration-Build public works projects to stimulate urban growth, spread jobs and gain income,”Pump-priming” -TVA-Tennessee Valley Administration-Build dams, agricultural improvement and flood control on impoverished Tennessee Valley area -WPA-Works Projects Administration-Hire families every year, relief to families,

18 New Deal cont. -Executive Order 6102-All privately owned gold was to be sold to government to balance gold standard -SOCIAL SECURITY ACT-Gave those with disabilities federal aide, old and the sick, as well gave workers the right to unionize and strike -Made several new administrations such as the FDIC,PWA, and others that enacted several bills of legislation -Some of the bills were declared unconstitutional and dropped. Later repealed by future leaders

19 Foreign Policy -At first Roosevelt did not push for any isolationist for pro-involvement actions, but soon advocated for involvement due to the rise of the second world war, No direct intervention Examples: -Neutrality Laws-Constantly changed to not put the U.S in any direct alliances or groups. Would trade with other nations and trade with allies on a “cash and carry” basis. Economic aid to allies. -Good Neighbor Policy- No interference in Latin American issues. Hoped to remain as a “good neighbor” and reinstitute trade amongst the countries -Global Economic summit of 1933- Meeting of European powers to discuss means to end global depression. U.S not involved and Roosevelt effectively ends the meetings efforts. Does not participate on order to focus in U.S condition. -Majority of population does not want to become involved with the European issues and massive debate rises over the isolationist ideas. -Slowly transition to becoming involved as events unfold -Lend-Lease act- Trade of military supplies monetary funds to France and Britain, “Arsenal of democracy” unofficial declaration of war. -Garden-Hose speech- Roosevelt advises country to become involved. -Quarantine speech-”Agressors are a threat to our country”, causes protest and pro-intervention to rise.

20 Court Decisions -The court put down many of the New Deal legislations such as the NIRA\ -1941-US.VS. Darby Lumber Company -Ruling that congress would be in control of all interstate commerce 1944-Korematsu.VS. United States- Over the constitutionality of the interment laws -Ruling that the laws were constitutional as that the Japanese were considered a possible threat during times of war. Apply to all Japanese 1944- Smith.VS. Alwright- Legality of anti-voting protests against minorities -Illegal to protest against. Primary elections must be open to all races

21 Social -Much of the public was against becoming involved within any foreign affairs in the 1930’s, but as well many supported becoming involved with the issues across the ocean -Increased involvement in labor unions and strikes occurred as the economy and job market heavily increased during WWII -Fear of other influences as a threat to the American identity such as communism, fascism, and foreign takeover -Became more tolerable of other races and violence decreased, but did not end all tensions as the Japanese became internalized and put into camps with a executive order. -Public demanded absolute takeover by the government to end the depression, putting the government right in the position of a new power. Trust grew for the government as things improved

22 Political -Election of 1932- Hoover.VS. Roosevelt -Democratic-Roosevelt-advocates an absolute end to the depression, an end to over public spending and a rise of a “new deal” Republican-Hoover-Incumbent-continuation of current policies and absolutely no intervention. -Results-Roosevelt wins -Significance- Spelled out the countries desire for an end to the depression and a shift toward the liberal/democratic mindset, put more reliance on government. Roosevelt Decisions -Court packing scandal -Attempted to pass legislation to put more justices in the supreme court, was not able to succeed and is a blemish on his presidency. -Weakening of republican party -Rise of democratic idealism -New Deal Coalition

23 End,or is it...

24 Fun Time!!!!!!!!! Prompt-What social, economic and political aspects gave rise to WWII that occurred as a result of the end of the First World War and the time period following the war? Why- Develop your own ideas why the wars developed from each other and how they were a continuation of the past. and who doesn't love essays?!?!?!?!?!?!?

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