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PRESENTATION TOPIC “War and Australian Nationalism: Gallipoli and the ANZAC Legend” Wayne Muller Griffith University 24 th June 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "PRESENTATION TOPIC “War and Australian Nationalism: Gallipoli and the ANZAC Legend” Wayne Muller Griffith University 24 th June 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRESENTATION TOPIC “War and Australian Nationalism: Gallipoli and the ANZAC Legend” Wayne Muller Griffith University 24 th June 2008

2 Australia and the USA- Contrasting Military Legacies Australia has had: –No War of Independence –No civil war –No equivalent of Arlington National Cemetery Australia and the USA have fought together in: –WW1 –WW2 –Korean War –Vietnam –Gulf Wars 1 and 2 –Afghanistan Australia and the USA both remember the sacrifices made in war: –Australia- ANZAC Day (25 th of April) –USA- Memorial Day (Last Monday in May)

3 A Profile of “Australians at War” The Boer War WW WW The Korean War The Vietnam War Iraq War Iraq War to the present Afghanistan to the present

4 WW1 and the Evolution of the ANZAC Tradition The evolution of Australian nationalism post federation in 1901 Reasons for Australia’ participation in WW1 –England as the “Mother Country” –War and “mateship” –Genuine patriotism and concept of being a “real man” –Social pressure not to be seen as a “slacker” (coward) –War as an adventure and a chance to travel –War as “sport” –Believed that the war would be over very quickly –Effectiveness of recruitment strategies Recruitment

5 Recruiting Poster

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11 Patriotic Poster

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15 War as a manifestation of “Mateship” –Concept of “mateship” – High levels of volunteerism by rural youths –Aspects of Australian “diggers”: Cynical about military leaders- names of Australian generals “Larrikin” behaviour Very strong bonds between soldiers-> “stand by your mates” War as “sport” and as an adventure –Naïve conceptions of the nature of the conflict –Perception that the war would be brief –Movie “Gallipoli”- playing AFL near the pyramids

16 Departing for Europe

17 The Gallipoli Campaign The events of the 25 th of April 1915 A planning and military disaster which achieved nothing The role of war historian C W Bean in creating the mythology of ANZAC

18 Above Anzac Cove

19 Trench at Gallipoli

20 The “Western Front” More significant than the Gallipoli Campaign –Scale of conflict –Scale of casualties –Duration of conflict –Successful conclusion

21 Bridges Over the Somme

22 Bray-Sur-Somme

23 Light Horse Regiment

24 The Conscription Debates and Referenda The “politics” of and justifications for conscription The role of the Prime Minister W M Hughes The role of the Catholic Church The results of the two referenda

25 The Prime Minister at a Pro Conscription Rally

26 The Air War

27 The Palestine Theatre

28 World War 2 The more muted significance of patriotism, nationalism and the “ANZAC Spirit” The theatres of WW2 –The war in Europe –The desert campaigns –The Pacific campaign A move away from Britain to the USA as our “powerful friend”

29 The Desert Campaign Nth Africa

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31 The War in the Pacific

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35 The Vietnam War Australia’s first ‘controversial war” Engagement with the USA Based on the climate created by the Cold War- Communism versus Democracy Also based upon the “domino principle” of the potential spread of Communism in Asia The controversy of conscription and the method of selecting conscripts The statistics on military deaths in Australia and the USA The first “television war” and the implications of this Military defeat in Vietnam- implications of this Vietnam veterans- post war traumas

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41 Iraq Wars One and Two Immediate involvement of Australians in both Iraq war 1- to repel a dictator’s invasion of Kuwait Iraq war 2- “Regime Change” and attempted democratisation Politics and controversies regarding Australia’s involvement in Iraq War 2 Scale of Australia’s involvement- symbolic rather than significant The current Australian withdrawal from Iraq

42 The “Rebuilding” of the ANZAC Tradition A strategy of the conservative coalition government elected in 1996 The personal background and values of Prime Minister John Howard Increasing participation in ANZAC day parades in Australia and Australians travelling to Gallipoli Declining role of the RSL and declining number of surviving veterans prior to Vietnam

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