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World War II and Post-War Europe -Key Concepts-. I. Hitler’s Foreign Policy Goals Made clear in Mein Kampf Made clear in Mein Kampf --The Third Reich.

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Presentation on theme: "World War II and Post-War Europe -Key Concepts-. I. Hitler’s Foreign Policy Goals Made clear in Mein Kampf Made clear in Mein Kampf --The Third Reich."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War II and Post-War Europe -Key Concepts-

2 I. Hitler’s Foreign Policy Goals Made clear in Mein Kampf Made clear in Mein Kampf --The Third Reich More than just a revision of the Treaty of Versailles More than just a revision of the Treaty of Versailles The need for “lebensraum” The need for “lebensraum” The vast spaces of Russia were his target The vast spaces of Russia were his target

3 II. Economic and Social Stability through Expansion Domestic economic policy fit his foreign policy Domestic economic policy fit his foreign policy Territorial Expansion came to be seen as an economic “safety valve” Territorial Expansion came to be seen as an economic “safety valve” Aggressive Foreign Policy was undertaken to avoid domestic difficulties Aggressive Foreign Policy was undertaken to avoid domestic difficulties

4 III. Revising the Treaty of Versailles Allies came to believe that the Treaty was unworkable by the mid-1930’s Allies came to believe that the Treaty was unworkable by the mid-1930’s Rebuilding of German Army (March, 1935 radio address) Rebuilding of German Army (March, 1935 radio address) Formation of the German Airforce: Luftwaffe Formation of the German Airforce: Luftwaffe

5 IV. Revising the Treaty of Versailles (cont) Reinstating Draft to form an army of 36 divisions—500,000 men Reinstating Draft to form an army of 36 divisions—500,000 men Remilitarization of the Rhineland (March, 1936) Remilitarization of the Rhineland (March, 1936) French merely lodged a protest with the League of Nations French merely lodged a protest with the League of Nations

6 V. Aggressive Italian Foreign Policy Invasion of Ethiopia (October, 1935) Invasion of Ethiopia (October, 1935) Aid to General Franco fighting the Spanish Civil War Aid to General Franco fighting the Spanish Civil War The Rome-Berlin- Tokyo Axis (October, 1936) The Rome-Berlin- Tokyo Axis (October, 1936)

7 VI. The “Anschluss” The unification of Austria and Germany The unification of Austria and Germany German troops march into Austria (March, 1938) German troops march into Austria (March, 1938) Seems to be an example of Wilsonian self-determination Seems to be an example of Wilsonian self-determination

8 VI. The “Anschluss” (cont) No European power was willing to risk war over such a popular invasion No European power was willing to risk war over such a popular invasion Germany now included territory that had never been a part of the whole Reich Germany now included territory that had never been a part of the whole Reich Hitler was triumphant and more confident than ever Hitler was triumphant and more confident than ever

9 1938 British Cartoon after the “Anschluss”

10 VII. Czechoslovakia and the Policy of Appeasement Eastern Europe began to clamor for protection Eastern Europe began to clamor for protection Hitler eyed the Sudetenland with desire Hitler eyed the Sudetenland with desire Czechoslovakia has a treaty with France Czechoslovakia has a treaty with France Policy of Appeasement was especially tragic in the case of Czechoslovakia Policy of Appeasement was especially tragic in the case of Czechoslovakia

11 VII. Czechoslovakia and Appeasement (cont) Very tense moment for Europe (September, 1938) Very tense moment for Europe (September, 1938) --British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain The Munich Agreement (September 30, 1938) The Munich Agreement (September 30, 1938) Hitler marches into Prague and takes the rest of Czechoslovakia (March 15, 1939) Hitler marches into Prague and takes the rest of Czechoslovakia (March 15, 1939)

12 VIII. Why Did the Western Democracies Appease Hitler? Widespread Pacifism Widespread Pacifism Increasing Guilt over the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles Increasing Guilt over the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles Hitler and Mussolini seen as a protection against further communist advances Hitler and Mussolini seen as a protection against further communist advances Britain and France were far too weak internally to oppose Hitler Britain and France were far too weak internally to oppose Hitler U.S. isolationism U.S. isolationism

13 IX. The Invasion of Poland German displeasure with the Polish corridor German displeasure with the Polish corridor British and French abandon appeasement British and French abandon appeasement Nazi-Soviet Non- Aggression Pact (August, 1939) Nazi-Soviet Non- Aggression Pact (August, 1939) British announced support for Poland—Hitler hesitates British announced support for Poland—Hitler hesitates Invasion of Poland— September 1, 1939 Invasion of Poland— September 1, 1939

14 Anonymous Cartoon, 1939

15 Life Magazine Cartoon (September 1, 1939)

16 X. A Brief Look at World War II Nazi “Blitzkrieg” Nazi “Blitzkrieg” The “Sitzkrieg” or Phony War (winter of ) The “Sitzkrieg” or Phony War (winter of ) Russia at war with Finland (November, 1939-March, 1940) Russia at war with Finland (November, 1939-March, 1940) Impact of the Russo- Finnish War Impact of the Russo- Finnish War German attack on Norway and Denmark (April 9, 1940) German attack on Norway and Denmark (April 9, 1940)

17 X. World War II (cont) Tension Between France and England Tension Between France and England General Manstein proposes a derivation of the old Schlieffen Plan General Manstein proposes a derivation of the old Schlieffen Plan German attack on France (May 10, 1940) German attack on France (May 10, 1940) The miraculous evacuation at Dunkirk (May 27-June 4, 1940) The miraculous evacuation at Dunkirk (May 27-June 4, 1940)

18 German Invasion of France— May, 1940

19 Evacuation at Dunkirk, June 4, 1940

20 Soldiers walk across vehicles in the water to get to ships in deeper water—Dunkirk Evacuation

21 X. World War II (cont) The Fall of France The Fall of France -- “Vichy” France in the south --Charles de Gaulle escapes to London The Battle of Britain (June-December, 1940) The Battle of Britain (June-December, 1940) --The “Blitz” --Leadership of Winston Churchill

22 Londoners Sleep in the Tube During the Battle of Britain

23 X. World War II (cont) Crucial Delay of Invasion of Russia to help out Italian forces in Greece (April-May, 1941) Crucial Delay of Invasion of Russia to help out Italian forces in Greece (April-May, 1941) Invasion of Russia—June 22, 1941 (“Operation Barbarossa”) Invasion of Russia—June 22, 1941 (“Operation Barbarossa”) Initial Hesitation by Stalin and a Soviet military disaster Initial Hesitation by Stalin and a Soviet military disaster Hitler divides troops towards Leningrad and Kiev Hitler divides troops towards Leningrad and Kiev

24 X. World War II (cont) German Troops in suburbs of Moscow by early October, 1941 German Troops in suburbs of Moscow by early October, 1941 German Troops began to suffer German Troops began to suffer Soviet Counterattack and Moscow is saved (December 5-6, 1941) Soviet Counterattack and Moscow is saved (December 5-6, 1941) The Battle of Stalingrad (September, January, 1943) The Battle of Stalingrad (September, January, 1943)

25 XI. An Uneasy Alliance Lend-Lease Aid to the Soviets Lend-Lease Aid to the Soviets Atlantic Charter (August, 1941) Atlantic Charter (August, 1941) US entry into the war (December 8, 1941) US entry into the war (December 8, 1941) British diplomacy with Stalin British diplomacy with Stalin Allied Strategy against the Germans Allied Strategy against the Germans War in North Africa War in North Africa

26 XI. An Uneasy Alliance (cont) Invasion of Sicily and Italy (July-August, 1943) Invasion of Sicily and Italy (July-August, 1943) Teheran Conference (November 28-December 1, 1943) Teheran Conference (November 28-December 1, 1943) Opening of a Second Front—the Invasion of Normandy (“Operation Overlord”) Opening of a Second Front—the Invasion of Normandy (“Operation Overlord”) From D-Day to V-E Day From D-Day to V-E Day Yalta Conference— February, 1945 Yalta Conference— February, 1945

27 XII. Nazi Treatment of Occupied Peoples Germany and its “allies” during the War Germany and its “allies” during the War A German “New Order” A German “New Order” Treatment of Occupied Peoples Treatment of Occupied Peoples -- “Mongrelized peoples” --Treatment of Slavs The importance of “orderly reproduction” or scientific breeding The importance of “orderly reproduction” or scientific breeding

28 XIII. Nazi Treatment of the Jews Early Approach: Restrictions Early Approach: Restrictions More acute problem with the invasion of Poland More acute problem with the invasion of Poland Warsaw Ghetto (October, 1940) Warsaw Ghetto (October, 1940) SS Murder Squads SS Murder Squads Establishment of Death camps in Poland Establishment of Death camps in Poland--Auschwitz Reaction when camps were discovered Reaction when camps were discovered

29 Arrival at Auschwitz

30 Entry Gate of Auschwitz

31 The Condemned Unclothe and Sort Clothes and Shoes

32 The Condemned are sent to the Showers

33 Empty Cans of Zyklon B

34 Bodies were then Cremated

35 XIV. Resistance Movements to Nazi Terror Warsaw Ghetto uprising (April, 1943) Warsaw Ghetto uprising (April, 1943) Death Camp Uprisings ( ) Death Camp Uprisings ( ) Some simply gave in to Nazi tyranny Some simply gave in to Nazi tyranny Resistance organized all over occupied Europe Resistance organized all over occupied Europe Turning Points in European resistance to Nazi rule Turning Points in European resistance to Nazi rule

36 XV. Legacies of World War II Shift in Global Power Shift in Global Power Beginning of the Atomic Age—anxiety living under the mushroom cloud Beginning of the Atomic Age—anxiety living under the mushroom cloud Change in traditional American foreign policy of isolationism Change in traditional American foreign policy of isolationism Irrationality of Nazi atrocities jarred confidence of western civilization Irrationality of Nazi atrocities jarred confidence of western civilization

37 XVI. The Cold War: Origins Origins --Case Study: Stalin and the Polish government --Potsdam Conference: July, 1945 Key Events Key Events Unraveling in 1989 Unraveling in 1989

38 XVII. De-Colonization and Beyond Reasons Reasons Process Process Results Results A New World of Terror A New World of Terror


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