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World War Two Why did the Allies win? What were the consequences of the war?
Context Another possibility for Wars and Warfare, paper 2 Comparison of ending / consequences WW1 compared with WW2 Gives you another option Sample question: Analyse the results of either WW1 or WW2
WW1 vs WW2 Huge significance of both war Both Total Wars - mobilising all resources, affect on civilians Both had USA as crucial factor determining the result 1914 and Germany had huge initial successes but could not hold out against resources of opponents Also differences: combatants; WW2 more global - especially Pacific War
Statistics WW1 total deaths = 17 million WW2 total death (excluding Holocaust) = 37.6 million WW1 proportion of civilians killed =15% WW2 proportion of civilians killed =35%
Brief overview of WW2 You will not answer a question on the course of WW2 Difficult to summarise a massively complex war, this is just an overview to give you context for the ending of the war
1939 * Hitler invades Poland on 1 September. Britain and France declare war on Germany two days later * Rationing starts in the UK. * German 'Blitzkrieg' overwhelms Belgium, Holland and France. * Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Britain. * British Expeditionary Force evacuated from Dunkirk. * British victory in Battle of Britain forces Hitler to postpone invasion plans * Hitler begins Operation Barbarossa - the invasion of Russia. * The Blitz continues against Britain's major cities. * Allies take Tobruk in North Africa, and resist German attacks. * Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, and the US enters the war * Germany suffers setbacks at Stalingrad and El Alamein. * Singapore falls to the Japanese in February - around 25,000 prisoners taken. * American naval victory at Battle of Midway, in June, marks turning point in Pacific War. * Mass murder of Jewish people at Auschwitz begins * Surrender at Stalingrad marks Germany's first major defeat. * Allied victory in North Africa enables invasion of Italy to be launched. * Italy surrenders, but Germany takes over the battle. * British and Indian forces fight Japanese in Burma * Allies land at Anzio and bomb monastery at Monte Cassino. * Soviet offensive gathers pace in Eastern Europe. * D Day: The Allied invasion of France. Paris is liberated in August. * Guam liberated by the US Okinawa, and Iwo Jima bombed * Auschwitz liberated by Soviet troops. * Russians reach Berlin: Hitler commits suicide and Germany surrenders on 7 May. * Truman becomes President of the US on Roosevelt's death, and Attlee replaces Churchill. * After atomic bombs are dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan surrenders on 14 August.
The Ending of WW2 Why were the Allies victorious?
Why did the Allies win? Any ideas?
Main cateories Strength & unity of victors: Role of USSR Role of USA Dwight D. Eisenhower - Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe from 1944 Britain Women Resistance movements working with Allies
Disunity of Losers: Hitler lack of consultation Mussolini German morale breakdown by 1945 Resistance movements Foreign Aid: Empires of UK and France (less so) Military aid Warfare: USSR; Leningrad, Stalingrad, dedication D-Day; aerial bombing of Germany Mistake and interference of Hitler Allies greater strength
Problems with allies: Sicily beginning of end for Mussolini; poor ally, lacking resources and poor military Italy then joined Allies Romania surrendered August 1944; Bulgaria September 1944 Japan - key ally. Didn’t consult Hitler re. Pearl Harbour - furious. Brought in USA Internal Economy: Italy - huge problems, lacked raw materials, Hitler had to bail out Germany economy couldn’t cope - shortages Food issue by 1945, esp. Berlin. Inflation.
General Reasons why Germany was defeated Hitler’s bad decisions Germany was overextended –Had to rescue Mussolini - late into Russia –Long war –Eastern front took resources from N. Africa - El Alamein 1942 Huge resources of USA Capacity of USSR to resist and fight back –Industrial might - 5 year plans –Unity due to invasion - ‘Great Patriotic War’ –Stalin used patriotism well –Inability of Hitler to exploit divisions - e.g. Ukraine, Belorussia
Historiography Much debate over reasons for Germany’s defeat Much criticism directed at Hitler Did make serious errors but quite rational until latter stages Other reasons cited: failure to command sea and air - short war Most important: overwhelming economic superiority of USA and USSR; Red Army After 1941 (Stalingrad; USA) unlikely Axis could win Symbolic of end of dominance of Europe; new order
Prep Read 13.7, 13.8, 13.9 and in your textbook - deals with defeat and effects of the war No deadline but please do this - its about 8 pages