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Metabolic engineering. Targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways found in an organism in order to better understand and use cellular pathways.

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Presentation on theme: "Metabolic engineering. Targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways found in an organism in order to better understand and use cellular pathways."— Presentation transcript:

1 Metabolic engineering

2 Targeted and purposeful alteration of metabolic pathways found in an organism in order to better understand and use cellular pathways for the production of valuable products Practice of optimizing genetic and regulatory processes within cells to increase the cells' production of a substance. Metabolic engineers commonly work to reduce cellular energy use (i.e, the energetic cost of cell reproduction or proliferation) and to reduce waste production. Direct deletion and/or over-expression of the genes that encode the metabolic enzymes Current focus is to target the regulatory networks in a cell to efficiently engineer the metabolism


4 Biosynthetic pathway of L-Thr in E. coli L-Aspartyl phosphate Homoserine phosphate Glucose Phosphenolpyruvate Pyruvate TCA cycleOxaloacetate ppc mdh aceBAK aspC L-Lysine L-Methionine L-Aspartate L-Aspartate semidaldehyde Homoserine L-Threonine L-Isoleucine thrAlysC metL asd thrA thrB thrC ilvA dapA metA Feedback repression

5 Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass Biofuels: Production of ethanol from corn starch or sugarcane  Harder to transport than petrol Raise of global food prices Need for high-energy fuel : Fatty-acid derived fuels  Energy-rich molecule than ethanol  Isolated from plant and animal oils More economic route starting from renewable sources - Engineering E. coli to produce fatty esters(biodisel), fatty alchols, and waxes directly from sugars or hemi-cellulose - Cost-effective way of converting grass or crop waste into fuels

6 Nature Vol. 463 (2010)

7 Alternative biomass Macro algae : Multi-cellular marine algae, sea weed (red, brown, and green algae) Switch grass Ascophyllum nodosum

8 Synthetic Biology Design and construction of new biological entities such as enzymes, genetic circuits, and cells or the redesign of existing biological systems. Synthetic biology builds on the advances in molecular, cell, and systems biology and seeks to transform biology in the same way that synthesis transformed chemistry and integrated circuit design transformed computing. The element that distinguishes synthetic biology from traditional molecular and cellular biology is the focus on the design and construction of core components (parts of enzymes, genetic circuits, metabolic pathways, etc.) that can be modeled, understood, and tuned to meet specific performance criteria, and the assembly of these smaller parts and devices into larger integrated systems that solve specific problems.

9 Artemisinin : extracted from the leaves of Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, and has been used for more than 2,000 years by the Chinese as a herbal medicine called qinghaosu. The parasite that causes malaria has become at least partly resistant to every other treatment tried so far. Artemisinin is still effective, but it is costly and scarce. The supply of plant-derived artemisinin is unstable, resulting in shortages and price fluctuations 200 million people infected with malaria each year mainly in Africa, and at least 655,000 deaths in 2010  Treatment : Intravenous or intramuscular quinine Artemisinin works by disabling a calcium pump in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Mutation of a single amino acid confers resistance (Nature Struct. Mol. Biol. 12, 628–629; 2005). P roduction of the anti-malarial drug precursor artemisinic acid in engineered yeast US $ 43-million dollar grant from the Seattle-based Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

10 Malaria Mmosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium. It begins with a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito, which introduces the protists through saliva into the circulatory system. A motile infective form (called the sporozoite) to a vertebrate host such as a human (the secondary host), thus acting as a transmission vector. A sporozoite travels through the blood vessels to liver cells (hepatocytes), where it reproduces asexually (tissue schizogony), producing thousands of merozoites. These infect new red blood cells and initiate a series of asexual multiplication cycles (blood schizogony) that produce 8 to 24 new infective merozoites Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever and headache, which in severe cases can progress to coma or death. Only female mosquitoes feed on blood; The females of the Anopheles genus of mos quito prefer to feed at night

11 A Plasmodium in the form that enters humans and other vertebrates from the saliva of female mosquitoes (a sporozoite)

12 Strategy to engineer the yeast cell to produce the artemisinic acid at cheaper cost Engineering the farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) biosynthetic pathway to increase FPP production Introduction of the amorphadiene synthase (ADS) gene from Artemisia annua, commonly known as sweet wormwood Cloning a novel cytochrom P450 that perform a three-step oxidation of amorphadiene to Artemisinic acid from A. annua Production level : ~ 1.6 g/L by yeast New pathway in yeast for artemisinic acid

13 Improvement of production yield of artemisinic acid - Discovery of a plant dehydrogenase and a second cytochrome that provide an efficient biosynthetic route to artemisinic acid, with fermentation titres of 25 grams per litre of artemisinic acid by yeast. -Practical, efficient and scalable chemical process for the conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin using a chemical source of singlet oxygen, thus avoiding the need for specialized photochemical equipment. -The strains and processes form the basis of a viable industrial process for the production of semi-synthetic artemisinin to stabilize the supply of artemisinin for derivatization into active pharmaceutical ingredients. -Because all intellectual property rights have been provided free of charge, the technology has the potential to increase provision of first-line antimalarial treatments to the developing world at a reduced average annual price. Paddon et al., Nature (2013)

14 Overexpressed genes controlled by the GAL induction system are shown in green. Copper- or methionine-repressed squalene synthase (ERG9) is shown in red. DMAPP, dimethylallyl diphosphate; FPP, farnesyl diphosphate; IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate. tHMG1 encodes truncated HMG-CoA reductase. b, The full three-step oxidation of amorphadiene to artemisinic acid from A. annua expressed in S. cerevisiae. CYP71AV1, CPR1 and CYB5 oxidize amorphadiene to artemisinic alcohol; ADH1 oxidizes artemisinic alcohol to artemisinic aldehyde; ALDH1 oxidizes artemisinic aldehyde to artemisinic acid. Overview of artemisinic acid production pathway

15 Chemical conversion of artemisinic acid to artemisinin

16 C ell factory for valuable compounds from renewable biomass Production of Bio adipic acid from renewable source (C6 feed stock) Petroleum Bioprocess Pretreatment of biomass Biomass Sugars Strain development Chemical process Adipic acid Bio Nylon

17 Carpet 등 섬유 원료 Nylon 제조 원료 Polymer 의 원료기타 산업용 재료의 원료 Use and Applications High-value added compound for Nylon production : World market 10 조

18 Muconic acid derivatives

19 PEP E4P DAHP Chorismic acid DHQ aro, aroII aroBaroDaroE aroK aroAaroC DHS SAS3P EPSP p-Hydroxybenzoic acid tryptophan prephenate phenylpyruvate 4-hydroxy phenylpyruvate trpC~A trpG Δcsm pheA::aroF m tyrA::aroG m phenylalanine tryptophan tyrB, aspC protocatecheuate aroY catA catechol cis,cis-muconic acid Adipic acid Chemical synthesis ubiC ΔtrpE pobA pyruvate pps Biosynthesis of cis,cis-muconic acid pobA : p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase Design of new metabolic pathway in Corynebacterium Glucose Shikimic acid pathway Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

20 Critical point : Balanced synthesis of PEP and E4P Glucose Glucose 6-P Fructose 6-P Fructose 1,6-P Digydroxy acetone PGlyceraldehyde 3-P 3-P Glycerate Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Glucono-1,5-lactone 6-P6-P-GluconateRibulose 5-P Erythrose 4-phosphate (E4P) Sedoheptulose 7-P DHAP Xylulose 5-P PTS zwf pglgndru5p tkt tal tka pgi pfk pgk eno tis aroF,G Pentose phosphate pathway Glycolysis Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

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