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2013 Paralympic Leadership Conference Classification 201 - How a Better Understanding of the Classification Process & Data can Bring Greater Success to.

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Presentation on theme: "2013 Paralympic Leadership Conference Classification 201 - How a Better Understanding of the Classification Process & Data can Bring Greater Success to."— Presentation transcript:

1 2013 Paralympic Leadership Conference Classification How a Better Understanding of the Classification Process & Data can Bring Greater Success to your Athletes

2 Classification 201 Classification 201: How a Better Understanding of the Classification Process and Data can Bring Greater Success to your Athletes West Wing Conference Center Presenter: Julie O’Neill, U.S. Olympic Committee/U.S. Paralympics Classification education is an ongoing function of the Sport Performance Division of the USOC – both the education and training of classifiers and sharing of information with coaches, athletes, program managers, and the like. Coaches and Program Managers who gain a better understanding of the general premises of Paralympic sport classification are often better equipped to coach, teach, and support their athletes more effectively due to a greater understanding of the impairment, better knowledge of the overall classification process and procedures, and ability to understand basic medical data to evaluate what the athlete truly can and cannot do in a sport setting.

3 Classification What is Classification? Classification is undertaken to ensure that an Athlete’s impairment is relevant to sport performance (2.1.1) Classification has two important roles (2.1.2): To determine eligibility to compete To group athletes for competition Classification is the process by which athletes are assessed by reference to the impact of impairment on their ability to compete in a specific sport. Classification is quite simply the structure for competition. International Classification Code

4 Classification 201 Classification is a structure for competition… Paralympic athletes have an impairment in body structures and functions that leads to a competitive disadvantage in sport. Consequently, criteria are put in place to ensure that winning is determined by skill, fitness, power, endurance, tactical ability and mental focus, the same factors that account for success in sport for athletes who are able-bodied. Classification is the process by which athletes are assessed by reference to the impact of impairment on their ability to compete in a specific sport. HISTORY…  Impairment Based ( )  Functional ( )  Code Compliant (2010 +) 4

5 Classification International Classification Code (the “Code”) The Code outlines policies and procedures that are to be addressed and included within all sports’ classification rules by the respective sport IF (International Federation). Protests & Appeals Classifier Education Athlete Evaluation Sport Class Status Allocation Master List

6 Classification Impairment Groups in Paralympic Movement… Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) – includes Spina Bifida Cerebral Palsy (CP) – includes TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury / Stroke) Amputee (Dysmelia) Les Autres Blind / Visual Impairment Intellectual Impairment

7 Classification 201 Athlete Evaluation Sport classes are determined by a variety of processes:  Physical Evaluation / Assessment  Technical Evaluation / Assessment  Observation during Competition Sport classes are defined by the sport and form part of the sport’s international rules.  Classification Rules vs. Technical Rules Classification is an ongoing process. When an athlete starts competing, they are allocated a sport class that may be reviewed throughout the athlete's career.  National International classification “pipeline” Sports certify individuals to conduct the process of classification and these officials are known as “classifiers”. 7

8 Classification Athlete Evaluation Medical Diagnosis Impairment Category – Diagnosis – Details Examples: SCI – T10 – complete CP – hemiplegia – R VI – albinism Les Autres – dwarfism - achondroplasia Physical Assessment  Based on medical diagnosis / single or multiple evaluation protocols Technical Assessment  Training Observation  Sport-specific Technical / Skills Assessment Observation during Competition

9 Classification Impairments, Medical Diagnosis, Physical Evaluation… …application to coaching Muscle (power loss)  0 to 5 scale Coordination  Balance Range of Motion Limb Loss  Center of gravity Visual Impairment Intellectual Impairment  Base criteria + sport specificity

10 Classification Physical Assessment MUSCLE (POWER) TESTING SCALE 0 - Total lack of voluntary contraction 1 - Faint contraction without any movement of the limb (trace, flicker) 2 - Contraction with very weak movement through full range of motion when gravity is eliminated (poor) 3 - Contraction with movement through the complete joint range against gravity 4 - Contraction with full range movement against gravity and some resistance (good) 5 - Contraction of normal strength through full range of movement against full resistance (Daniels and Worthingham 1980) Impairments, Medical Diagnosis, Physical Evaluation… …application to coaching

11 Classification Physical Assessment JOINT RANGE OF MOVEMENT 0 - No movement possible 1 - Less than 25% movement possible % range of movement possible % range of movement possible % range of movement possible % range of movement possible (Blomquist 1985) Impairments, Medical Diagnosis, Physical Evaluation… …application to coaching

12 Classification Physical Assessment COORDINATION ASSESSMENT (Scale) 0 - Activity impossible 1 - Severe impairment; only able to initiate activity without completion 2 - Severe impairment; able to accomplish the activity but in a very unorthodox way 3 - Moderate impairment; able to accomplish the activity, movements are slow, awkward and unsteady 4 - Minimal impairment; able to accomplish the activity with slightly less than normal speed and skill 5 - Normal performance (O’Sullivan, Cullen and Smith 1981) Impairments, Medical Diagnosis, Physical Evaluation… …application to coaching

13 Classification KEY MUSCLE INNERVATION FOR SPINAL CORD LEVEL Elbow FlexorsC5 Wrist ExtensorsC6 Elbow ExtensorsC7 Finger FlexorsC8 Finger AdductorsT1 Abdominal Innervations BeginsT6 Abdominal Innervation CompleteT12/L1 Hip FlexorsL2 Knee ExtensorsL3 Ankle DorisflexorsL4 Long Toe ExtensorsL5 Ankle PlantarflexorsS1 ** Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) – complete vs. incomplete ** Impairments, Medical Diagnosis, Physical Evaluation… …application to coaching

14 Classification Application of Classification Assessment Data Knowledge of impairment / Evaluation scores & data  coaching  training  technique  skill development balance center of gravity “I can’t” recovery physiology biomechanics nutrition learning styles psychology

15 Classification Resources 15 I nternational Paralympic Committee (IPC) International Classification Code Paralympic Games Classification Guides U.S. Paralympics (NPC) National Policy & Procedure documents National SPORT Master Lists Sport-specific rules/regulations/policies IPC and IFs (International) NGBs / NFs (National)


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