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Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Investigation of Multiphase Flow Behavior in Horizontal Gas Wells Rosmer.

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Presentation on theme: "Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Investigation of Multiphase Flow Behavior in Horizontal Gas Wells Rosmer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Investigation of Multiphase Flow Behavior in Horizontal Gas Wells Rosmer Brito

2 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Outline  Objective  Introduction  Literature Review  Study Plan  Small Scale Facility  Experimental Range  Testing Program  Instrumentation  Near Future Tasks

3 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Objectives  Investigation of Multiphase Flow Characteristics for Horizontal Oil and Gas Wells  Experimentally Using a Small Scale Facility (2-in. ID)  Theoretically by Developing a Mechanistic Liquid Loading Criterion  Investigate Effects of Wells Geometry and Trajectory  Development of a Predictive Software Tool

4 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Introduction United States Shale Gas Plays

5 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Introduction … U.S. natural gas production, 1990-2035 (trillion cubic feet)

6 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Hydraulic Fracture in Horizontal Wells

7 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Water Production In Horizontal Gas Wells  80% Water Used for Hydraulic Fracture Spreads in the Reservoir After Flow Back  Below/Above Water Formations  Fractures extends to Water Bearing Layers Continues Water Production

8 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Horizontal Section in Gas Wells  Liquid Loading Occurs When  Gas Production Declines  Associated Liquids are not Lifted  Intermittent or No Gas Production  H L in the Horizontal Section  Impair Production Before Loading is Evident  Slug Flow from Horizontal Wellbore to Tubing  Liquid Loading is Affected by Well Deviation CSU/SPE 149477

9 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review  Turner (1969)  Water Production Affects Flow Characteristic of the Wells  Liquid Generates Back Pressure  Slugging Design: Affects H L and dP/dL Prediction Production: Affects Well Test Results  Proposed Physical Models Liquid Film Movement Along the Wall of the Pipe Liquid Droplet Entrainment on the High Velocity Gas Core Comparison with Field Data

10 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Coleman (1991)  Parameters Affecting Liquid Loading Liquids Gravity and Surface Tension Water and Oil are Presented  Onset of Loading Tubing ID Pressure  Minor Influence Temperature, Gas Gravity and Interfacial Tension  Wells that Exhibit Slugging Behavior May not Follow Liquid-Droplet Model  Different Transport Mechanism

11 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Sarica, Shoham and Brill (1991)  Flow Behavior in Hilly Terrain Pipelines with Low Gas/Liquid  Gravity Dominated  Steady or Unsteady Flow  Transient Behavior Pipe Geometry Gas Compressibility  Rigorous Terrain Slugging Model

12 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Meng (2001)  Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Tests for Inclination Angles of - 2 , 0 , + 2  in a 2 in. ID Pipe  Pressure Gradient is Much Higher Than Single Phase Case  Slightly Change in Inclination Angle Affects Liquid Holdup

13 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Zhang and Sarica (2011)  Stratified Flow  Low Liquid Loading Gas/Liquid Flow in Horizontal and Slightly Downward Inclined Pipes

14 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Zhang and Sarica (2011)  Flow Patterns: Smooth Interface 2D Waves 3D Waves Roll Waves Entrainment

15 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Zhang, and Sarica (2011)  Upward Inclination   HL Qg < Qcritical Transition from SS to SL flow   dP/dL  Almost All Empirical Correlations are Inadequate for the Predictions of Low Liquid Loading Flow Behavior  Mechanistic Models Requires Improvement of Closure Relationships

16 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Liang-Biao Ouyang (2000)  Influence of Influx on Single Phase and Multiphase Wellbore Flow  Experiments 1993-1997  100-ft (30.5 m)-Long Horizontal Wellbore  Axial Flow and Radial Influx  Different Wellbore IDs, Gravel Packs, Perforation Types and Densities  Pressure Drop Prediction

17 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Literature Review …  Most of These Studies were Focused on Horizontal Pipes  Knowledge in Horizontal Wells Multiphase Flow is Limited  Complex Configurations (Undulations) have not been Investigated in Majority of Studies  Multiple Fluid Entry Locations have not been Considered

18 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Study Plan  Experimental  Design and Construct a Versatile Facility  Perform Testing Based on Prioritized Schedule  Model Development for Prediction Loading and Flow Conditions

19 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Small Scale Facility  Overall Cost ~ $50,000  Two Months of Construction Time  Facility will be Ready by Nov. 1 st, 2012  Low Modification Effort  Quick Results  Preliminary Results can be Utilized for Large Scale Loop Design and Instrument Selection and Location  Some Artificial Lift Methods can also be Tested  Needs to Be Identified

20 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Small Scale Facility … SubmergiblePump 2 ’’ Water Tank Control Valve CVW Coriolis Meter MMW 2 ’’ TT W PT1 DP1DP2 Camera C1C2C3 C4C5 C6 C7 1 2 3 4 5 6 C8 1 No Intrusive Capacitance Sensor 40’ ( 240D ) Quick Closing Valve

21 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Experimental Range … SubmergiblePump 2 ’’ Water Tank Control Valve CVW Coriolis Meter MMW 2 ’’ TT W PT1 DP1DP2 Camera C1C2C3 C4C5 C6 C7 1 2 3 4 5 6 C8 1 No Intrusive Capacitance Sensor 40’ ( 240D ) Quick Closing Valve

22 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Experimental Range …  Flow Pattern Map (  = -1  )

23 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Experimental Range … SubmergiblePump 2 ’’ Water Tank Control Valve CVW Coriolis Meter MMW 2 ’’ TT W PT1 DP1DP2 Camera C1C2C3 C4C5 C6 C7 1 2 3 4 5 6 C8 1 No Intrusive Capacitance Sensor 40’ ( 240D ) Quick Closing Valve

24 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Experimental Range …  Flow Pattern Map (  = 0  )

25 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Experimental Range … SubmergiblePump 2 ’’ Water Tank Control Valve CVW Coriolis Meter MMW 2 ’’ TT W PT1 DP1DP2 Camera C1C2C3 C4C5 C6 C7 1 2 3 4 5 6 C8 1 No Intrusive Capacitance Sensor 40’ ( 240D ) Quick Closing Valve

26 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Experimental Range …  Flow Pattern Map (  = +1  )

27 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Testing Program  Static Liquid Tests  q Lin =0  Liquid Volume, V L >0  Dynamic Liquid Tests  q Lin >0

28 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Static Tests

29 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Static Tests

30 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Static Tests

31 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Static Tests Gas Superficial Gas Velocity

32 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Static Tests Gas

33 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Static Tests … Gas

34 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Dynamic Tests Water Gas  V SW =0.003 m/s – 0.03 m/s  V SG =0.3 m/s –16 m/s

35 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Dynamic Tests …  Determine Multiphase Flow Characteristics for Undulating Section  Flow Pattern  Pressure Drop  Liquid Holdup  Water Blockage Phenomena

36 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Instrumentation  Clamp on Capacitance Sensor

37 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Instrumentation …  Quick Closing Valve System V1 V2 QCV TEST SECTION AIR T2 P1 T1T1 P2 WATER PRESURRIZED VESSEL

38 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Instrumentation …  Flow Pattern Observation  Flow Pattern Evaluation Videos in the Inlet, Undulating and Vertical Section by Utilizing Outdoor Surveillance Cameras  High Speed Camera Will be Connected to the Undulating Section

39 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Instrumentation …  Film Flow Direction  Wall Shear Stress Sensor Wall Shear Stress Measurement Near Wall Flow Direction Indicator Commercial Device for Direct Wall Shear Stress Measurement Lenterra RealShear™ F - Series

40 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Near Future Tasks  Completion of Construction of the Facility (November 2012)  Testing Starting in November 2012

41 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Thanks …

42 Horizontal Well Artificial Lift Projects Advisory Board Meeting, August 16, 2012 Questions Questions


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